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Psych development

CH 9 Catching - Development of Manipulative Skills

QuestionAnswer
What is the most common manipulative skill catching
what is the goal of catching to retain possession of the object you catch
what is the best way to catch an object? object in the hands because the catcher can quickly manipulate it – usually by throwing it
Early stage of catching Batch ball with body Hands are facing up
Proficient Catching Catching with hands Arms go with ball Body in front of the ball
catching is specific to what? environmental and task constraints
Developmental Changes in Catching – Arm 1. arms extended only 2. arms extended in hugging the ball - trapped against chest 3. arms are extended forwards but move under to scoop ball 4. arms give into the fore of the ball- caught with hands
Developmental Changes in Catching – Hand 1. palms are faced up 2. palms are facing each other 3. palms adjust to the size and flight of the ball
Developmental Changes in Catching – Body 1. no adjustment - body doesn't move 2. the arms
Children better predict the ball flight as they get older, especially when the viewing time (path of the ball) is short
Observing Catching Patterns key point to assess catching skill, environmental and task constraints such as ball size and ball trajectory must be tracked and replicated
Why is anticipation so important? To be successful, performers must initiate movements well ahead of interception so that the body and hands (or implement, such as a hockey stick) can be in the proper position when the object arrives
Coincidence-anticipation tasks are motor skills that require anticipates the completion of a movement to coincide with the arrival of a moving object
Performance of coincidence-anticipation tasks improve through childhood and adolescence likely due to what? due to difference in perception-action ability. However, improvement is largely dependent on task constraints
ball color and background combinations influence young children’s performance because they cannot focus on the ball
Young children are less accurate as the movement gets more complex
Young children are more successful at intercepting large balls than small balls
A high trajectory makes interception more difficult for young children
Children’s accuracy decreases if the interception point is farther away
↑ speed ↑ interception difficulty
↓ speed children respond too early
Two important characteristics for catching: invariance Optic array
invariance is stability in the kinematic values of a set of movements (i.e., keeping patterns in the environment constant)
Optic array consists of the light waves reverberating from surfaces in the environment (the stimulus for visual perception)
optic array expands when the movement is “toward”
optic array constricts when the movement is “away”
Interception success is often related to ball size, speed, trajectory, and other task and environmental constraints
Catchers are able to intercept balls by keeping certain relationships between themselves and the ball constant
why do older adults not catch as well as younger individuals May be due more to the physical limitations rather than perception and anticipation of where to be
Driving is complex perceptual-motor skill involving manipulation Skillful driving depends on vision (and sometimes hearing), attentional focus, experience, speed, and coordination, all under occasionally stressful conditions
older adults have a hard time -dividing their attention and performing two tasks at once in driving situations -also take longer to plan movements and are slower in executing movements, especially when speedy movement is needed
Created by: rmart11