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Chapter 6 Muscles

muscle cells fibers
loose connective tissue perimysium
connective tissue sheath epimysium
threadlike structure that extends from one end of fiber to the other myofibrils
muscles shorten with force contractility
muscles respond to stimulus excitability
muscles to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to original resting length after being stretched elasticity
Z line to Z line sarcomere
produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature muscles
connective tissue located outside of epimysium fascia
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called sarcomeres
basic structural and functional unit of the muscle sarcomere
fasciculi composed of single muscle cells called fibers
single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle fibers motor unit
outside of cell membrane has what type of charge positive
inside of cell membrane has what type of charge negative
change difference across the membrane resting
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
reversal back of the charge action potential
muscle fiber will contact maximally threshold
beginning of a contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
produced in the mitochondria ATP
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
length of the muscle doesn't change, amount of tension increases isometric
amount of tension is constant during contraction, length of muscle changes isotonic
most stationary end of muscle origin
end of muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of muscle between the origin and insertion belly
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
raises the eyebrow occipitofrontalis
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering muscle levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastification
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
adducts and flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and extends the arm latissimus dorsi
extends the forearm triceps branchii
flexes the forearm biceps branchii
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
buttocks gluteus maximus
extends the leg quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior thigh muscles hamstring
forms the calf muscle gastrocnemius and soleus
how many muscles are located in the foot 20 muscles
how many muscles are located in the hand 19 muscles
how many pairs of mastification muscles 4 pairs
list mastification muscles 2 pair pterygoids, temporalis, masseter
amount of oxygen needed for chemical reacts oxygen debt
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen (more efficient) aerobic respiration
short lived and unstable ATP
sliding of actin past myosin during contraction sliding filament mechanism
muscles are named according to their what location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function
lateral muscles of the leg peroneus
Created by: laykenpayne



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