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ability for muscles to contract/shorten Contractility
4 major characteristics of muscle contraction Contractility, Excitability, Extensibility, Elasticity
capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to original resting length elasticity
connective tissue sheath surrounding each skeletal muscle epimysium
connective tissue that the surrounds and separates muscles fascia
loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fascicle perimysium
connective tissue sheath that surrounds each fiber endomysium
fills the cytoplasm if each fiber myofibrils
2 major kinds of protein fibers in the myofibrils actin and myosin
thin myofilaments actin
thick myofilaments myosin
highly ordered units formed by actin and myosin sarcomeres
muscle cells muscle fibers
buttocks gluteus maximus
chest muscle pectoral muscle
back muscle latissimus dorsi
closes the eye lid orbicularis oculi
flattens the cheeks buccinator
Adenosine triphosphate ATP
Anterior thigh muscle quadriceps femoris
posterior thigh muscle hamstrings
charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of the charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
each branch that connects to the muscle forms a neuromusclular junction
another word for a neuromusclular junction synapse
a single motor cell neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
tendinous area of the abdominal wall linea alba
on each side of the linea alba rectus abdominis
cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations tendinous inscriptions
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
kissing muscles orbicularis oris and buccinator
chewing mastication
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
the arm is attached to the thorax by the pectoralis major and latissumus dorsi muscles
flexes the arm pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm latissimus dorsi
"swimmer muscles" latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and the calvicle deltoid
extends the forearm, occupies the posterior compartment triceps brachii
flexes the forearm, occupies the anterior compartment biceps brachii
flexes forearm brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm brachioradialis
strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons retinaculumn (bracelet)
flexes the wrist flexor carpi
extends the wrist extensor carpi
flexes the fingers flexor digitorum
extends the fingers extensor digitorum
"tailors muscle"; flexes the thigh sartorious
form the calf muscle gastrocnemius and soleus
20 muscles located in the foot intrinsic foot
neurotransmitter acetylcholine
muscle fiber postsynaptic terminal
secretes the acetylcholine synaptic vessels
the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell acetylcholinesterase
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contractions sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus muscle twitch
the point at which the muscle fiber will contract maximally threshold
the phenomenon in which muscle fibers reach the threshold level all-or-none response
tine between application of a stimulus and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase of motor neurons being activated recruitment
high-energy module stored when at rest creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen (more efficient) aerobic respiration
the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction, faster than is can be produced muscle fatigue
equal distance isometric
equal tension isotonic
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
most stationary end of the muscle origin
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscle between the origin and insertion belly
muscles the work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition of one another antagonists
muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
Created by: lpwilli3