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BSC 105 Muscles

the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
the ability to be stretched Extensibility
the ability to recoil to the original resting length after being stretched Elasticity
the connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle Epimysium
a connective tissue located outside the epimysium, surrounding and separating muscles Fascia
visible bundles that a muscle is composed of Fasciculi (fascicle)
loose connective tissues that surround the fascicle Perimysium
muscle cells Muscle fibers (fibers)
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called Endomysium
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fibers to the other Myofibrils
thin myofilaments Actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments Myosin myofilaments
I BAND Actin
H ZONE Myosin
A BAND Myosin
basic structural and functional unit of the muscle Sarcomeres
from one z-line to another z-line Sarcomere
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
branches that connects to the muscle Synapse
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates Motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell Synaptic cleft
muscle cell membrane Sarcolemma
breaks down acetylcholine Acetylcholinesterase
causes sarcomeres to shorten Actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another
contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus Muscle twitch
level at which the muscle fiber will contract maximally Threshold
when the threshold is achieved All-or-none response
time between application of a stimulus and beginning of contraction phase Lag phase
time of contraction Contraction phase
time when the muscle relaxes Relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
increase in number of motor neurons Recruitment
adenosine triphosphate ATP
produced in the mitochondria ATP
without oxygen Anaerobic respiration
with oxygen (more efficient) Aerobic
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions Oxygen debt
when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced Muscle fatigue
the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process Isometric(equal distance)
the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes Isotonic(equal tension)
constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods Muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue Slow-twitch fibers
most stationary end of the muscle Origin
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
portion between origin and insertion Belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements Synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another Antagonists
chewing Mastication
raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontals
closes the eyelids Orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips Orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks Buccinator
smiling muscle Zygomaticus
sneering Levator labii superioris
frowning Depressor anguli oris
lateral neck muscle Sternocleidmastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back Erector spinae
accomplishes quiet breathing Diaphragm
tendinous area of the abdominal wall Linea alba
rotates scapula Trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm Latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle Deltoid
extends the forearm Triceps Brachii
flexes the forearm Biceps brachii
flexes forearm Brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm Brachioradialis
flexes the wrist Flexor carpi
extends the wrist Extensor carpi
flexes the fingers Flexor digitorum
extends the fingers Extensor digitorum
buttocks Gluteus maximus
extends the leg Quadriceps femoris
flexes the thigh sartorius
posterior thigh muscles, flexes the leg and extends the thigh Hamstring muscles
flexes and extends the toes Intrinsic foot
Created by: nataliemccann



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