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DM Anatomy Midterm 2

Epithelial Tissues and Bones

QuestionAnswer
What are the general characteristics of epithelial tissue highly packed cells; little extracellular matrix between the cells; all have apical and basal side; basement membrane; don't have any blood vessels; contain nerve fibers
How does epithelial tissue receive nutrients and oxygen the blood vessels in the connective tissue under the basement membrane provide nutrients for cells through DIFFUSION
Function of Stratified Epithelium protection and prevent abrasion, provide impermeable barrier
Function of Simple Epithelium diffusion, osmosis or secretion
Characteristics of Pseudostratified Epithelium made by one layer of the cells; cells have different height and their nuclei located at different levels; found in respiratory system such as trachea.
Characteristics of Transitional Epithelium made of several layers of cells; superficial cells have dome shape; different thickness; found in urinary system
What are Three Components of Connective Tissue Cells, Ground Substances and Fibers
What is the Matrix in connective tissue Ground Substances and Fibers together
What is the Serous Membrane Made of Simple Squamous Epithelium and Connective Tissue underneath the membrane.; two layers; visceral layer attached to surface of organs and parietal layer located farther from organs there is fluid between two layers. Covers organs that have constant
What is peritonitis cause inflammation; accumulates in Peritoneum and Serous Membrane around organs digestive system because liver or kidney dysfunctions.
Function of the Serous Membrane Layer Inhibits Friction between organs
What is the Order and Characteristics of each layer in epidermis from the deepest layer to the superficial layer Stratum basale; stratum spinosum; stratum granulosum; stratum lucidum; stratum corneum
Stratum Basale divides cells
Stratum Spinosum desmosome
Stratum Granulosum granules that contain keratohyallin
Stratum Lucidum in thick skins
Stratum Corneum keratinization
In which layer of epidermis dead cells can be found Stratum Corneum
In which layer of epidermis cell division can take place Stratum Basale
In which layer can be found just in thick skin and not found in thin skin? Stratum Lucidum
What function of Langerhans cell? where can it be found in the epidermis? Immunologic function. Located in Stratum Spinosum
What is the function of Melanocytes? where can it found in the epidermis? Melanocytes makes melanin pigment and protect the Nuclei of the skin cells, especially in the Spinosum from UV light. Located in Stratum Basalis.
What are the two layers of dermis? Papillary and reticular
What are the characteristics of Papillary Layer? Where is it located? Made of loose connective tissue; it contains lots of blood vessels; provides nutrients to cells in epidermis; makes papilla right under epidermis.
What are the characteristics of Reticular layer? Where is it located? Made by dens irregular connective tissue; located deep between Papillary layer of Dermis and Hypodermis; consist of skin derivatives: hair follicles; sweat glands; sebaceous glands.
What does happen to the amount of collagen and elastic fiber in Dermis by increasing the Age? both decrease
What are the two types of Sweat Glands Eccrine = merocrine and apocrine
Which type is important for thermoregulation in body Eccrine
What is the goose bump? Name of structure that causes goose bump? straightening of the hairs because of the smooth muscle contraction. the structure that cause the goose bump is ARECTOR Pili
What are the functions of bone? Support, protection, movement, reservoir or minerals and adipose tissue, hematopoiesis
What are the SUPPORT functions of bone? the bones of the legs, pelvic girdle, vertebral column support the weight of the erect body
What are the PROTECTION functions of bone? the bones of the skull protect the brain
What are the MOVEMENT functions of bone? skeletal muscles use the bones as levers to move the body
What are the HEMATOPOIESIS functions of bone? all blood cells are made in the Marrow of certain bones
What minerals are stored in bones? 99% of the body's calcium is stored in bone
What tissue is found in bone and what part of the bone? Adipose Tissue and its found in Marrow of certain bones
What are 3 different cells in the bone tissue? Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoclasts
Function of Osteoblasts bone-building cells; synthesize and secret collagen fibers and other organic components of bone matrix (Osteoid). initiate Process of Calcification.
Function of Osteocytes mature bone cells; trapped by secretion of matrix; no longer secrete matrix; maintain bone tissue and bone matrix; housed in Lacunae and connected thru Canaliculi.
Function of Osteoclasts huge cells fused by 50 monocytes (white blood cells); cells digest bone matrix - called Bone Resorption.
What is Bone Resorption Cells that digest bone matrix
Difference between Compact bone and Spongy bone they have different arrangements in cells and bone matrix. Compact Bone - has osteons and lamella; and Spongy Bone has trabeculae.
What are the shared characteristics of the compact and spongy bone? both have Osteocytes reside in Lacuna; Osteoblasts; Osteoclasts; Calcium and Phosphate in their Matrix; and Matrix is hard in both
What is a bone marrow and where is it in children Medullary Cavity - red bone marrow. located in long bone in bony struts of spongy bone in flat, short and irregular bones. Has Hematopoiesis function.
What is a bone marrow and where is it in adults Medullary Cavity - fatty yellow bone marrow. The Hematopoietic cells are replaced by Adipocytes.
How are spongy bone and compact bone different in tolerance of stress Spongy bone made in Trabeculae can tolerate stress from different directions that are not too strong. Compact bone receive stress from limited range and they are strong and heavy
What is Periosteum and its functions? A membrane covers outside of bone. Made of connective tissue. Separates bones and other tissues. Has blood vessels and nerves that provide nutrients, gasses and senses for bones.
What does the Periosteum contain for bone growth? Osteoprogenitor cells for bone growth from the sides and repairs the bones.
What is Endosteum? Connective tissue membrane - covers the inside of Medullary Cavity in long bones and the pores in spongy bone. Its located next to Bone Marrow.
How the cells in cartilage and bone receive their nutrients? what is the difference? Cartilage don't have blood vessels in the matrix. Blood vessels are in perichondrim; Nutrients diffuse thru blood vessels to cells in cartilage (chondrocytes).
What is Epiphyseal plate? function? when can you see it? Region between Epiphysis and Diaphysis of long bones. Consists of hyaline cartilage with chondrocytes - provides growth in long bone before puberty.
What is Epiphyseal line? when can you see it? After Puberty the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bony tissue and converts to epiphyseal line in adults. The cells cannot divide, nor increase length of bone.
What is Intramembranous ossification Forms flat bones. Like cranial bones of skull and clavicles. Bones will be made in Mesenchyme and fibrous membrane
What is Endochondral ossification Replacement of hyaline cartilage with bone. Starts in cartilage model. Ossification forms the rest of the bones of the body which is the common ossification
Correlation between blood calcium levels and calcitonin too much calcium in the blood causes secretion of calcitonin from thyroid gland - stimulates osteoblasts to make bones and inhibits osteoclasts.
Correlation between blood calcium leels and parathyroid hormone too little calcium in the blood causes secretion of PTH or Pathormone from parathyroid gland that inhibits osteoblasts and stimulates osteoclasts to absorb bones and release calcium in blood - this is an example of negative feedback.
What is immovable joint? two bones connected that cannot move; e.g. skull connected to site of sutures
What are highly movable joints? two bones can move easily. e.g. joints in knee and shoulder.
What are the characteristics of synovial joint? classified as diarthrosis - highly movable bones - found in upper and lower extremetes e.g. shoulder or knee.
General structure of synovial joint articular cartilage, synovial (joint) cavity, articular capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligamen, fat pads and Minisci
What is osteoporosis happens over 50; bone resorption occurs at a faster rate than bone deposition; bone becomes weak and break easily b/c bone mass drops and bone becomes porous
What causes Oseoporosis caused by insufficient exercise; poor diet in calcium and protein; abnormal vitamin D receptors, smoking - reduces estrogen levels; hormone-related conditions
Created by: miataz
 

 



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