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P Mylin Study Stack

Body Structure

abduction movement away from median plane
adduction movement toward median plane
medial pertaining to midline
lateral pertaining to side
superior (cephalad) toward the head
inferior (caudal) toward the tail, away from head
proximal nearest to the center (trunk) or to point of attachment to the body
distal further from the center (trunk) or to point of attachment to the body
anterior (ventral) front of body
posterior (dorsal) back of body
parietal pertaining to the outer wall of the body
visceral pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs
prone lying face down on abdomen
supine lying horizontally on back, face up
inversion turning inward, or inside out
eversion turning outward
palmar pertaining to the palm of hand
plantar pertaining to the sole of foot
superficial toward the surface of the body (external)
deep away from the surface of the body (internal)
cyt/o cell
hist/o tissue
kary/o nucleus
nucle/o nucleus
anter/o anterior, front
caud/o tail
crani/o cranium, skull
dist/o (distal) far, farthest
dors/o back of body
infer/o lower, below
later/o side, to one side
medi/o middle
poster/o back (of body), behind, posterior
proxim/o near, nearest
ventr/o belly, belly side
abdomin/o abdomen
cervic/o neck
crani/o cranium, skull
gastr/o stomach
ili/o ilium (lateral, flaring portion of the hip)
inguin/o groin
lumb/o loins (lower back)
pelv/i pelvis
pelv/o pelvis
spin/o spine
thorac/o chest
umbilic/o umbilicus, NAVEL
albin/o white
leuk/o white
chlor/o green
chrom/o color
cirrh/o yellow
jaund/o yellow
xanth/o yellow
cyan/o blue
erythr/o red
melan/o black
poli/o gray
acr/o extremity
eti/o cause
idi/o unknown, peculiar
morph/o form, shape, structure
path/o disease
radi/o radiation, X-ray
somat/o body
son/o sound
viscer/o internal organs
xer/o dry
-genesis forming, producing, origin
-gnosis knowing
-gram record, writing
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-logist specialist in the study of
-logy the study of
-meter instrument to measure
-metry act of measuring
-pathy disease
ab- away from
ad- toward
hetero- different
homeo- same
infra- below, under
peri- around
super- upper, above
trans- through, across
ultra- excess, beyond
stable internal environment homeostasis
when homeostasis is disrupted disease
presents a group of signs, symptoms, and clinical findings pathological/morbid
visible indicators signs
felt by patient (dizziness, nausea, pain) symptoms
study of cause or origin of a disease or disorder etiology
Types of diseases: metabolic such as diabetes
infectious such as measles and mumps
congenital such as cleft lip
hereditary such as hemophilia
environmental such as burns and trauma
neoplastic such as cancer
Establishing the cause and nature of a disease Diagnosis
Prediction of the outcome of the course of a disease and its probable outcome Prognosis
Any disease whose cause is unknown Idiopathic
Abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated adhesion
Substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods analyte
Substance injected into the body, introduced by catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to visualize on X-ray films contrast medium
Bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound dehiscence
Feverish, pertaining to a fever febrile
Stable internal environment homeostasis
Body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain and, sometimes, loss of function inflammation
Diseases; pertaining to a disease morbid
Branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive materials for diagnosis, treatment, and research nuclear medicine
radiology X-ray
Radiological practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders interventional radiology
Use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer; also called radiation oncology therapeutic radiology
Substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers radionuclides
Radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned radiopharmaceutical
Term used to describe a computerized image by modality (such as CT, MRD, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thryoid and bone) scan
Pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the preence of microorganisims or their products in the bloodstream sepsis
Producing or associated with generation of pus suppurative
Visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope endoscopy
Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall laparoscopy
Examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs thoracoscopy
Common blood test that enumerates RBCs, WBCs and platelets; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; and sorts WBCs into five subtypes with their percentages complete blood count (CBC)
Common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine urinalysis (UA)
Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography computed tomography (CT)
Ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells Doppler
Radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures fluoroscopy
Noninvasive imaging technique that used radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease positron emission tomography (PET)
Imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on film; also called x-ray radiography
Radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Imaging procedure using high-grequency sound waves that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound ultrasonography (US)
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis biopsy (bx)
Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe needle biopsy
Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch) punch biopsy
Removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions shave biopsy
Removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freeaing, or radio frequency ablation
Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another anastomosis
Destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals cauterize
Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette (curet) curettage
Incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity Incision and Drainage (I&D)
Surgical technique employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues laser surgery
Surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an atttempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence radical dissection
Partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure resection
ant anterior
AP anteroposterior (front to back)
Bx, bx biopsy
CBC complete blood count
CT computed tomography
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DSA digital subtraction angiography
Dx diagnosis
FS frozen section
I&D incision and drainage
LAT, lat lateral
LLQ left lower quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
PET positron emission tomography
post posterior
RF rheumatoid factor; radio frequency
RLQ right lower quadrant
RUQ right upper quadrant
sono sonogram
SPECT single positron emission computed tomography
Sx symptom
Tx treatment
UA urinalysis
U&L, U/L upper and lower
US ultrasound; ultrasonography
Created by: pmylin