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Digestive System

TermDefinition
The start and end of the digestive system Mouth, teeth, tongue, 3 salivary glands, hard and soft palate, ovula, 3 pharynx, epiglottis, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
Accessory organs Liver, pancreas, gallbladder, teeth, salivary glands, and tongue.
Liver The liver processes the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body's chemical "factory."
Pancreas Enzymes, or digestive juices, are secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. There, it continues breaking down food that has left the stomach. It also produces insulin to break down glucose.
Gallbladder The gallbladder holds bile produced in the liver until it is needed for digesting fatty foods in the duodenum of the small intestine.
Teeth The teeth are used for the process of mastication. It is the physical breakdown of food. This enables the digestive enzymes greater access to the food material and so assists their role in the digestive process.
Salivary glands function They produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. It helps break down carbohydrates and lubricates the passage of food down from the oro-pharynx to the esophagus to the stomach. Contains water, mucus, and amylase.
Tongue The tongue is anchored into the hyoid bone. The tongue is vital for chewing and swallowing food, as well as for speech. The four common tastes are sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. A fifth taste, called umami, results from tasting glutamate (present in MSG)
Bolus A masticated morsel of food or another substance ready to be swallowed. Also a soft rounded mass substance of food ready to be swallowed.
Chyme the pulpy acidic fluid which passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.
Where does digestion take place? Digestion begins in the mouth, when we chew and swallow, and is completed in the small intestine.
Where does absorption take place? 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine. Water and minerals are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon (large intestine) where the pH is slightly acidic about 5.6 ~ 6.9.
Bile A bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid that aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
How are Hepatitis A, B, and C transmitted? Hepatitis A: Through infected feces, poor sanitation, and certain sex practices Hepatitis B: Spread from mother to baby, or contact with infected bodily fluids, including through sexual contact or used needles. Hepatitis C :Exposure to infected blood.
Epiglottis a thin, valvelike, cartilaginous structure that covers the glottis during swallowing, preventing the entrance of food and drink into the larynx.
Names and location of salivary glands Parotid gland - "near the ears"; sublingual - "under the tongue"; and submandibular - "under the mandible".
Peristalsis The involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wave-like movements that push the contents of the canal forward. It pushes ingested food through the digestive tract towards its release at the anus.
Cirrhosis A chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It is typically a result of alcoholism or hepatitis.
Largest gland in the body Liver is the largest gland in human body. It is also the largest (internal) organ in our body and can weigh up to 1.5-1.6 kg for a human adult.
Hemorrhoids Also called piles, are swollen veins in your anus and lower rectum, similar to varicose veins. Hemorrhoids have a number of causes, although the cause is unknown. May from straining during bowel movements.
Amylase An enzyme, found chiefly in saliva and pancreatic fluid, that converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars.
What hydrochloric acid in gastric juices does The gastric chief cells of the stomach secrete enzymes for protein breakdown. Hydrochloric acid activates pepsinogen into the enzyme pepsin, which then helps digestion by breaking the bonds linking amino acids, a process known as proteolysis.
Rugae Refers to a series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ. Most commonly the term is applied to the internal surface of the stomach (gastric rugae).
Cardiac sphincter The somewhat thickened muscular ring surrounding the opening between the esophagus and the stomach (a valve). It prevents the backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus.
Pyloric sphincter A band of smooth muscle at the junction between the pylorus of the stomach and the duodenum of the small intestine. Its function is acting as a valve to control the flow of partially digested food from the stomach to the small intestine.
Pepsin The chief digestive enzyme in the stomach, which breaks down proteins into polypeptides.
Lipsae A pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of fats to fatty acids and glycerol or other alcohols.
Appendix location The appendix sits at the junction of the small intestine and large intestine. It's a thin tube about four inches long. Normally, the appendix sits in the lower right abdomen. The function of the appendix is unknown.
Stomach gastric juices & is function Fluid comprising a mixture of substances, including pepsin and hydrochloric acid, secreted by glands of the stomach. Its principal function is to break down proteins into polypeptides during digestion.
Villi Any of the fingerlike or threadlike projections from the surface of certain membranous structures, typically serving to increase surface area and facilitate the passage of fluid or nutrients.
Uvula Your uvula is the fleshy piece of tissue hanging down over your tongue toward the back of your mouth. It’s part of the soft palate. The uvula helps push food toward your throat.
Ac Before meals
Bae Barium enema
BID Twice a day
BR1 Bowel movement
FBS Fasting blood sugar
GI Gastrointestinal
GTT Glucose tolerance test
HCI Hydrochloric acid
his At bed time
NPO Nothing by mouth
P.C, PC After meds
P.O. Orally, by mouth
Prn as needed, as required
q.d. Everyday
QID, q.i.d Four times a day
stat Immediately
T.I.D., t.i.d. Three times a day
Soft palate The soft palate helps close your nasal passages when you swallow. It is both fleshy and flexible part of the roof of the mouth that partially separates the mouth from the pharynx.
Hard palate The bony anterior part of the palate forming the roof of the mouth. The plicae, irregular ridges in the mucous membrane that help facilitate the movement of food backward towards the larynx.
The major cause of an ulcer is _. The most common causes of peptic ulcers are infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and long-term use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Stress and spicy foods do not cause peptic ulcers
Bite of an apple Mouth, teeth, tongue, hard palate and small palate, 3 salivary glands, uvula, 3 pharynx, esophagus, stomach, rectum, anus, and toilet. The piece of the apple is digested and the nutrients have been absorbed, later on becoming fecal matter.
Created by: NataliaO