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Final Exam A&P II

urinary, reproductive, electrolyte balance

QuestionAnswer
What does PCT stand for? proximal convoluted tubule
Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Vascular Resistance in Microcirculation High resistance in afferent and efferent arterioles Causes blood pressure to decline from ~95 mm Hg to ~8 mm Hg in kidneys
Intracellular fluid compartment (ICF) 2/3 of fluid or 25 L in cells
Extracellular fluid compartment (ECF) 1/3 of fluid or 15 L
Plasma (part of ECF) 3 L
Interstitial Fluid 12 L in spaces between cells
Fluid compartments 40 L of fluid total
other ECF lymph, CSF, humors of the eye, synovial fluid, serous fluid, and gastrointestinal secretions
Composition of body fluids water is the universal solvent solutes electrolytes nonelectrolytes Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes water moves according to osmotic gradients
electrolytes inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins
nonelectrolytes examples include glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea
intracellular fluids low sodium and chloride chief cation: potassium chief anion: phosphate
extracellular fluid chief cation: sodium chief anion: chloride
Water Balance and ECF Osmolality water intake = water output = 2500 ml/day Increases in plasma osmolality trigger thirst and release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
water intake beverages (60%), food (30%), and metabolic water (10%)
water output urine (60%), insensible water loss (skin and lungs) (28%), perspiration (8%), and feces (4%)
Dehydration (-) water balance ECF water loss causes: hemorrhage, severe burns, vomiting/diarrhea, sweating, water deprivation, diuretics weight loss, fever, mental confusion, hypovolemic shock, and loss of electrolytes
Signs and symptoms of dehydration Signs and symptoms: thirst, dry flushed skin, oliguria
diploid 46 chromosomes (2 sets)
haploid 23 chromosomes (1 set)
respiratory acidosis pH: less than 7.35 Indications: Partial pressure of carbon dioxide: 35-45 mm Diseases: Pneumonia, asthma, cystic fibrosis Compensation:
Respiratory alkalosis pH: more than 7.45 Indications: partial pressure of carbon dioxide is LOW Diseases: severe pain, extreme stress Compensation: Kidneys reabsorb the hydrogen ions and secrete bicarbonate
Metabolic acidosis: pH: less than 7.35 Indications: bicarbonate less than 22 Diseases: Diabetes, kidney failure, excessive loss of bicarbonate (diarrhea) Compensation: Lungs will compensate by hyperventilation (gets rid of excess hydrogen ions)
Metabolic alkalosis pH: more than 7.45 Indications: bicarbonate more than 26 Diseases: Excessive vomiting, antacid abuse Compensation: Lungs will compensate by hypoventilation (conserves carbon dioxide until levels become normal)
Created by: davisobr