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SKELETAL SYSTEM

Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

QuestionAnswer
Physiologies (functions) of the skeletal system include:- 1. Support of muscles, skin, blood vessels, nerves and adipose (fat tissue).
Physiologies (functions) of the skeletal system include:- 2. Protection (armor) for vital organs such as: a. brain b. Spinal cord c. Heart. d. Lungs
Physiologies (functions) of the skeletal system include:- 3. Attachments for muscles called tendons.
Muscular contraction causes tendons to pull on bones causing locomotion which means: movement
Physiologies (functions) of the skeletal system include:- 4. Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis) which means formation (creation) of blood cells.
Physiologies (functions) of the skeletal system include:- 5. Storing fat and mineral salts such as Ca which stands for calcium and P which stands for phosphorus.
Bones whose length exceeds their width are called: long bones
Located at the distal (end) portions of the long bones and at the center of all other bones is a meshwork of interconnecting sections called: cancellous bone aka spongy bone.
The many spaces within cancellous bone are filled with: red bone marrow aka myeloid tissue
Cancellous bone is aka: spongy bones
Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is found in larger quantities in the 1. Cranium aka the skull.
Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is found in larger quantities in the 2. Bones that form a cage around the thoracic (chest) cavity called ribs.
Red bone marrow is found in larger quantities in the: 3. Vertebrae aka the back bones or spinal column.
Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is found in larger quantities in the 4. Sternum is aka the breast bone.
Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is found in larger quantities in the 5. Pelvis aka hip bones
Analysis (examination) of a myeloid tissue specimen to determine if the cells are malignant (dangerous) or benign (harmless) is abbreviated BMB which stands for: bone marrow biopsy.
Specimen means: sample.
A common site (location) to obtain a bone marrow biopsy (BMB) is the: crest of an ilium aka an iliac crest.
Crest means: top
Another type of bone marrow found in the medullary cavity of the shafts of the long bones is called: yellow bone marrow.
Medullary means: middle
Yellow bone marrow primarily consists of (contains) fat cells aka: adipose tissue
The shaft of each long bone is called the: diaphysis.
The distal portions (parts) of each long bone are called: epiphyses
Distal means: end.
Epiphyses are the distal portions (parts) of the long bones that: grow vertically aka growth plates.
The pituitary (hypophysis) hormone that stimulates (causes) epiphyses is abbreviated GH which stands for: growth hormone.
The pituitary (hypophysis) is controlled by the: hypothalamus..
A fibrovascular membrane surrounding (covering) each bone is called the: periosteum
When one bone meets another bone and articulates, it is called a: synovial joint
Synovial membranes are: joint linings.
Articulates means: moves.
Tissue located between articulating bones is called: articular cartilage.
Articular cartilage is aka a: meniscus
Cartilage is pliable which means: flexible.
Cartilage prevents friction between: articulating (moving) bones
Friction means: rubbing.
Cartilage is pliable which means: flexible.
Since cartilage is pliable (flexible), it also functions as a: shock absorber.
Tissue binding (holding) articulating (moving) bones together are called: ligaments.
Ligaments allow only a specific (particular) ROM which stands for: range of movement (motion).
Tough flexible non-elastic fibrous tissue that connects muscles to bones are called: tendons.
Formation of bone is called: ossification
Bone cells are called: osteocytes.
Osteocytes that build bones are called: osteoblasts
Osteocytes are: bone cells.
Osteocytes (bone cells) that remove (reabsorb) bone are called: osteoclasts.
To build bone, osteoblasts require weight (WT) bearing which involves: movement aka locomotion.
To remove (reabsorb) bone, osteoclasts require: nothing.
Bones whose length exceeds their width are called: long bones.
Examples of long bones include: 1. Two clavicles aka collar bones.
Long bones are those whose: length exceeds their width.
Examples of long bones include: 2. Two (2) humeri aka superior (upper arm bones).
Examples of long bones include: 3. Two (2) radii aka lateral (side) bones of the inferior (lower ) arms.
Examples of long bones include: 4. Two (2) ulnae aka medical (middle) bones of the inferior (lower) arms.
The proximal portion (part) of each ulna is called the: olecranon aka the elbow.
Proximal means: beginning.
Examples of long bones include: 5. Two (2) femurs aka superior (upper) leg bones or thigh bones.
Long bones ae those: whose length exceeds their width.
Examples of long bones include: 6. Two (2) tibiae aka anterior (front) bones of the inferior (lower) legs or shin bones.
Examples of long bones include: 7. Two (2) fibulae aka posterior (back) bones of the inferior (lower) legs or little fibs.
Examples of long bones include: 8. Ten (10) metacarpals aka hand bones.
Examples of long bones include: 9. Ten (10) metatarsals aka foot bones.
Examples of long bones include: 10. Twenty (20) phalanges aka fingers or toes or digits.
One (1) finger or one (1) toe or one (1) digit is called a: phalanx.
Bones without a diaphysis are called: short bones.
Diaphysis means: shaft.
Examples of short bones include: 1. Sixteen (16) carpals aka wrist bones.
Short bones do not have a: diaphysis (shaft)
Carpals (wrist bones) include: a. Pisiforms
Carpals (wrist bones) include: b. Triquetra
Carpals (wrist bones) include: c. Lunates
Carpals (wrist bones) include: d. Scaphoids
Carpals (wrist bones) include: e. Hamates
Carpals (wrist bones) include: f. Capitates
Carpals (wrist bones) include: g. Trapezoids
Carpals (wrist bones) include: h. Trapezia
Examples of short bones include: 2. Fourteen (14) tarsals aka ankle bones.
Tarsals are arranged in the: hindfoot and forefoot.
Tarsals are: ankle bones.
Each hindfoot consists of (contains): a. Calcaneus aka heel bone.
Each hindfoot consists of (contains): b. Talus
Each hindfoot consists of (contains): c. Navicular
Each hindfoot consists of (contains): d. Cuboid
Each forefoot consists of (contains) a: a. Medial cuneiform aka the first (1st) cuneiform
Each forefoot consists of (contains) a: b. Intermediate cuneiform aka the second (2nd) cuneiform.
Each forefoot consists of (contains) a: c. Lateral cuneiform aka the third (3rd) cuneiform.
Thin bones located where there is extensive muscle attachment or to protect fragile or vital tissues are called: flat bones.
Extensive means: large amount
Examples of flat bones include: 1. Bones of the cranium aka the skull.
Flat bones are located where there is: Extensive muscle attachment or to protect fragile or vital tissues.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: a. Two (2) parietal bones aka the cranial (skull) roof.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: b. One (1) frontal bone aka the forehead.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: c. Two (2) temporal bones aka the temples.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: d. One (1) occipital bone located at the posterior base of the cranium (skull)
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: e. Two (2) zygomatic bones aka cheek bones.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: f. One (1) maxilla aka the superior (upper) jaw.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: g. One (1) mandible aka the inferior (lower) jaw.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: h. One (1) nasal bone aka the bridge of the nose.
Bones of the cranium (skull) include: I. Two (2) cranial (skull) cavities containing the eyes are called orbits aka eye sockets.
Examples of flat bones include: 2. One (1) sternum aka the breast bone.
Bones of the sternum include: a. The superior (upper) section called the manubrium aka the handle.
Bones of the sternum include: b. The medial (middle) section called the gladiolus aka the blade.
Bones of the sternum include: c. The inferior (lower) section called the xiphoid process aka the tip.
Examples of flat bones include: 3. Twelve (12) pairs of ribs.
Examples of flat bones include: a. Ribs 1-7 are called true ribs aka vertebrosternal ribs.
Examples of flat bones include: b. Ribs 8-10 are called false ribs aka vertebrochondal ribs.
Examples of flat bones include: c. Ribs 11+12 are called floating ribs aka vertebral ribs.
Examples of flat bones include: 4. Two (2) scapulae aka shoulder bones or shoulder blades.
Examples of flat bones include: a. The lateral (side) and most superior (top) part of each scapula is called the acromion process.
Examples of flat bones include: b. Muscles that move each arm are attached to each scapula (shoulder bone) at the coracoid process.
Examples of flat bones include: c. The head of each humerus articulates with a scapula (shoulder bone) at the glenoid fossa.
Humeri are the: superior (upper) arm bones.
Examples of flat bones include: 5. Pelvic bones aka pelvis or hip.
Pelvic bones include: a. Ilia (ilium) singular
Pelvic bones include: b. Ischia (Ischium) singular
Pelvic bones include: c. Pubes (Pubis) singular.
Examples of flat bones include: 6. Two (2) patellae aka kneecaps
The spinal column refers to the: pillar of back bones aka vertebrae.
The spinal column (vertebrae): provide protection (armor) for the spinal cord.
The superior section of the spinal column consists of (contains): seven (7) cervical vertebrae named C1 through C7.
The medical section of the spinal column consists of (contains): twelve (12) thoracic vertebrae named T1 through T12.
The inferior section of the spinal column consists of five (5) lumbar vertebrae named L1 through L5.
What times do many people eat breakfast, lunch and dinner: 7 cervical vertebrae (C1-C7) 12 thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) 5 lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5)
Cartilage located between articulating vertebrae are called: intervertebral disks (discs)
Articulating means: moving
Vertebrae are: backbones aka spinal column.
The posterior section of the pelvis and inferior section of the vertebrae (spinal column) is called the: sacrum.
The distal (end) portion of the sacrum is called the: coccyx aka the tailbone.
The sacrum is the: posterior (back) section of the pelvis and the inferior (lower) section of the vertebrae (spinal column).
Each vertebra consists of (contains) a: thick disk-shaped anterior section called the vertebral body.
Each vertebra consists of (contains) a passageway for the spinal cord called: the vertebral (neural) foramen.
Each vertebra consists of (contains) a posterior (back) projection called the: spinous process.
Projections (processes) are aka: prominences.
Each vertebra consists of (contains) two (2) lateral (side) projections called: transverse processes.
Projections (processes) are aka: prominences
Each vertebra consists of a vertebral arch called a: lamina
Surgical removal (excision) of a lamina is called a: laminectomy.
A lamina is a: vertebral arch.
The sections of each vertebra connecting a vertebral body to a vertebral arch (lamina) and are notched to allow passageway for spinal nerves are called: pedicles.
A vertebral body is a: thick disk-shaped anterior (front) section of a vertebra (back bone)
Bone surfaces exhibit projections called: prominences or processes.
Exhibit means: display.
Bone surfaces exhibit depressions called: fossae
Fossae (depressions) are: indentations
Any sharp slender projection is called a: spine
A large projection (prominence) for the attachment of tendons and ligaments is called a: tuberosity.
Tendons are tough flexible non-elastic fibrous tissue that connect: muscles to bones
A knuckle-like projection is called a: condyl
Projections are aka: prominences or processes.
A small round projection is called a: tubercle
A very large projection (prominence) is called a: trochanter.
A narrow ridge is called a: crest
A terminal enlargement is called a: bone head.
A bone head is adjacent (next) to the: neck.
Fossae are: depressions or indentations.
A narrow junction between two (2) bones is called a suture
An opening through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass is called a: foramen
Ligaments bind articulating (moving) bones together and allow a specific (particular) ROM which stands for: range of movement.
A long tube-like passage through a bone is called a: canal
A cavity within a bone is called a: sinus or antrum
A furrow or groove in a bone is called a: sulcus
The number of bones in the human body is: 206.
Created by: bterrelonge