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A&P lll


What is blood composed of? Plasma
Nutrients and oxyen diffuse from blood into where? Intestinal fluid
In what direction does cell waste move Reverse
Extracellular fluid is made up of Plasma
Where does hematoposesis take place Red bone marrow
What are the three functions of blood Regulation, protection, transport
Transportation is? Exchange in material between Respiratiory and atmosphere Digestive and body tissue Excretory organs and blood Blood and cell Intestial fluid and cell
What is part of the regulation of hemeostasis Ph Osmosis Body T0
What is the purpose of blood Protects against foreign bodies and disease And forms clots to prevent bleeding out
Ph of blood 7.35-7.45 (slightly alkaline)
Thromboyctes Platelets
Leukocyte White blood cell
Erythrocytes Red blood cell
Albumin Regulates osmotic pressure of the blood Keeps water in the blood
Plasma protein is mostly made up of Albumin
Antibodies Protects the body from pathogens
What does serum have in it Blood plasma ( without clotting factors) Antibodies Protein Water Inclusions
Granular leukocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils
Agranular leukocyts Lymphocytes Monocytes Platelets
Hematocrit Percentage of blood occupied by cells
What is a females normal hematocrit range 38-46% (42%) average
What is a males normal hematocrit range? 40-54% (46%) average
Anemia When the body doesnt have enough red blood cells / hemoglobin
Polycythemia To many rbc
What is blood doping Athletes inject themselves with stored rbcs before athleteic events makes blood have more oxygen But higher viscosity and heart works harder so its dangerous
Hemopoiesis Blood cell formation
Where does hemopoisesis occur in the embryo Yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymphnodes
In adults were does hemopiesis occur Red marrow of flat bones (Sternum, ribs, skull, pelvis and end of long bones)
Erythropoietin Is produced by the kidneys increases rbc
Thrombopoieten Hormone from liver stimulates platelet production
Cytokines Local hormones of bone marrow Wbc production
What two factors does cytokines have Colony stimulating factor and interleukin stimulate
RBC wear out in how many days 120
99% of formed cells RBC
What do RBC do Transport oxygen
These cells have no nucleus RBC
Hemoglobin Iron containing protein responsible for binding to 02
What gives blood its red color Hemaglobin
What does hemoglobin have 4 hemes 4 globin
Heme Iron containing group transports oxygen to the blood
How many oxygen does each hemoglobin carry from lungs to tissue 4
Hemoglobin also transporrts ________ waste from tissue cells to lungs for release Co2
What does hemoglobin transport that regulates blood pressure Nitric oxide
Tissue hypoxia When cells dont get enough 02 anemia
What do the kidneys do to respond to hypoxia Release erythropoietin and speed up development
What is the normal Reticulocyte count 0.5-1.5%
What can low reticuloycte count indicate in an anemic person Bone marrow problems, leukemia,
High reticulocyte count indicates recent blood loss
What are the critical nutrients needed for normal production of RBCVs Iron, Folate, Vitamin b12
CBC ( complete blood count) measures the amount or levels of many blood constituents
WBC or Leukocyts account for how much of blood 1%
What do leukocytes do decent against bacteria viruses (CHEMOTAXIS)
diapedesis ability to slip in or out of blood vessels to fight infection
the only complete cells with a nucleus are WBC
lympocytes immunity
excessive wbc infection or lukemia
reduces wbc hiv
leukocytosis high white blood cell count
leukopenia low wbc count
antigen substance that, when introduced into the 
body causes formation of antibodies against it
antibody substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen
active immunity protects body against future infection because of antibodies the body develops after an infection or from a vaccine
passive immunity conveyed naturally through the placenta to a fetus. conveyed artificially through injection of a serum containing antibodies
Neutrophil Fastest response of all WBC to bacteria Direct actions against bacteria
Monocyte Take longer to get to site of infection, but arrive in larger numbers Become wandering macrophages, once they leave the capillaries Destroy microbes and clean up dead tissue following an infection
Basophil Involved in inflammatory and allergy reactions Leave capillaries & enter connective tissue as mast cells
Eosinophil Leave capillaries to enter tissue fluid Release histaminase Attack parasitic worms
B cells destroy bacteria and toxins they become plasma cells that produce antibodies
T cells attack virus
Natural killer cells attack many different microbes some tumor cells and destroy foreign incaters
Thromboyctes are fragments of what cell megakaryoctes
Normal platelet count 150,000-400,000
how do platelets form in bone marrow myeloid stem cells become megakaryocyte-colony forming cells to megakaryoblast to megakaryocytes whose cell fragments form platelets
What is a platelets life span 5-9 days
Platelet plug formation platelet adhesion, platelet release reaction, platelet aggregation
Platelet adhesion platelets stick to exposed collaged
platelet release reaction extend projections and make contact with each other and release chemicals that help decrease blood flow through site of injury
platelet aggregation platelets stick together and activate new platelets to form a mass called a platelet plug
coagulation the process of clotting
thrombosis formation of a clot in a broken or unbroken vessel
3 stages of clotting prothrombin activator conversion of prothrombin into thrombin conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin by thrombin
Fibrinolytic system Dissolves small inappropriate clots and clots at a site if a completed repair
Thrombosis Clot forming in an unbroken blood vessel
Embolus Clot or air bubble or fat from broken bone in the blood
Anticoagulant Suppress or prevent blood clotting (heprin)
Hemophilia Clotting disorder due to a deficiency in clottin factors (Bumps and falls cause bleeding)
Blood type O Universal doner
Blood type AB Universal recipient
Hemolytic disease new borns Mother produces anti -Rh. Antibiodies these antibodies cross the placenta and cause aggluation and hemolysis of fetuses RBCs - mom + fetus = mixing blood at birth could be okay first pregnancy but will cause problems for child in second
Acidosis Condition that occurs when the PH of the blood becomes less alkaline then normal
Alkalosis Condition that occurs wen the PH of the blood becomes basic
Sickle cell Cresent shaped cells that cause blockages
What do most blood disease result from Failure connective tissue to form blood cells properly
Created by: knt5411



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