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Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

The integumentary system consists of: 1. Skin 2. Hair 3. Nails
The integumentary system consists of (contains): 4. Sebaceous glands that secrete sebum aka oil
The integumentary system consists of (contains): 5. Ceruminous glands that secrete cerumen aka wax.
The integumentary system consists of (contains): 6. Sudoriferous glands that secrete sweat.
The integumentary system consists of (contains): 7. Melanocytes that respond to a pituitary hormone abbreviated MSH which stands for melanocyte stimulating hormone.
The pituitary is aka: the hypophysis or master gland.
Melanocytes produce a pigment called: melanin
Melanin provides protection against UVR which stands for: ultraviolet radiation.
Characteristics (descriptions) of skin include: 1. Pliability which means flexibility.
Characteristics (descriptions) of skin include: 2. Being waterproof due to a fibrous structural protein called keratin.
Characteristics (descriptions) of skin include: 3. Providing protection from many chemicals and antigens which are pathogens (disease creators)
Characteristics (descriptions) of skin include: 4. Decreasing body temperature by the vaporizing process of sweat called evaporation.
Evaporation (vaporizing) means: liquid changing to gas.
The outer layer of skin is called the: epidermis.
The epidermis consists of (contains): microscopic units of life called epithelial cells.
Each epithelial skin cell can replicate (duplicate or copy) into 2 genetically identical daughter cells to replace necrotic (dead) epithelial skin cells by a process called: mitosis.
The number of chromosomes in each epithelial skin cell is: 46 (23 from Mom, 23 from Dad).
Newly replicated epithelial skin cells push older epithelial skin cells upwards toward the surface where they necrose (die) by a process called: keratinization
Keratinized epithelial skin cells are constantly being sloughed which means: shed
Epithelial skin cell sloughing (shedding) helps rid the body of antigens which are: pathogens (disease creators).
The second (2nd) layer of skin is called the: dermis or corium.
A fibrous protein in the dermis (corium) that binds, supports and cushions is called: collagen
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) damages collagen causing lines and fold in the skin called: wrinkles
The dermis consists of (contains): 1. Small arteries carrying oxygenated (O2) blood called arterioles.
The dermis consists of (contains): 2. Small veins carrying deoxygenated (CO2) called venules.
The dermis consists of (contains): 3. Microscopic arteries and veins that diffuse (exchange) oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) called capillaries.
The dermis consists of (contains): 4. Nerve cells that transmit (send) changes in the environment (stimuli) to the brain for interpretation called afferent neurons aka sensory neurons.
The dermis consists of (contains): 5. Sebaceous glands that secrete (produce and discharge) oil for lubrication and waterproofing called sebum.
The dermis consists of (contains): 6. Sudoriferous glands that secrete (produce and discharge) a salty watery fluid called sweat.
The process of secreting sweat is called: perspiration (perspire)
Sweat is secreted through ossa called: sudoriferous pores.
Ossa are openings aka: orifices or meati.
The dermis consists of (contains): 7. Ducts (tubes) that transport (carry) lymphatic fluid called lymph vessels.
Lymphatic fluid is called: Lymph
The dermis consists of (contains): 8. The part of each hair that replicates by mitosis (exact copy) called the hair follicle.
Newly replicated (copied) hair follicle cells push older hair follicle cells upwards toward the surface where they necroes by a process called: keratinization.
The third (3rd) layer of skin is abbreviated sub Q or subcu which stands for: subcutaneous aka the hypodermis.
Subcutaneous (subQ) tissue primarily consists of fat cells called: adipose tissue.
Subcutaneous tissue connects the dermis to: underlying muscles.
The dermis is the second layer of skin aka the corium
Fibrous connective tissue that anchors all muscles and all organs is called fascia
Anchors means: holds in place and fixates.
Hypertrophied (thickened) skin caused by chronic (persistent) friction (rubbing) is called a: callus (calluses) or callosity (callosities)
Hypertrophied means: excessive growth or development.
The color of skin, hair and eyes is genetically determined by the amount of skin pigment produced called: melanin.
Localized loss of skin pigment characterized (described by) white patches is called: leukoderma or vitiligo.
Skin pigment is called: melanin.
A genetic mutation (change) causing an absence of melanin is called: albinism
Genetic means: hereditary aka familial.
Dilation (expansion) of blood vessels in the dermis causes redness called: erythroderma aka erythema or rubeosis.
Causes of erythema (skin redness include: 1, Pyrexia which means fever.
Causes of erythema (skin redness include: 2. HTN which stands for hypertension aka high blood pressure (HBP).
Causes of erythema (skin redness include: 3. The immune reaction to a wound (injury) called inflammation.
Causes of erythema (skin redness include: 4. A reaction to embarrassment called blushing.
A streptococcal (strep) or staphylococcal (staph) infection causing inflammation of skin cells is called: celulitis
Infection means: invasion (entry) and proliferation (rapid reproduction).
Reduction of blood to the skin can cause a pale discoloration called: pallor
A bluish discoloration of the skin commonly caused by hypoxia or hypothermia is called: cyanosis (cyanotic)
Hypoxia means: condition of deficient oxygen (O2)
Hypothermia means: condition of deficient heat
A yellowish discoloration of the skin is called: jaundice (jaundiced) aka icterus (icteric) or xanthoderma.
Jaundice (icterus or xanthoderma) can be caused by hyperbilirubinemia which means: blood condition of excessive bilirubin.
Bilirubin is: necrotic (dead) hemolyzed (fragmented) erythrocytes (RBCs)
Hair: Hair is a characteristic of all: mammals
Other mammalian characteristics include: 1. Warm blooded.
Other mammalian characteristics include: 2. Use of lungs to breathe
Other mammalian characteristics include: 3. Produce milk to feed their young.
Other mammalian characteristics include: 4. Most are born alive.
Other mammalian characteristics include: 5. Most have seven cervical vertebrae
Hair can be found on the entire human body except for the: 1. Anterior (ventral) side of the hands called the palms. Anterior (ventral) means front.
Hair can be found on the entire human body except for the: 2. Anterior (front) side of the feet called the soles.
Hair can be found on the entire human body except for the: 3. Enlarged distal (end) portion (part) of the penis called the glans penis.
Each hair consists of (contains) the: 1. Visible portion (part) called a hair shaft.
Each hair consists of (contains) the: 2. Portion (part) within the epidermis and dermis (corium) called the hair root.
The epidermis is the: outer layer of skin.
Each hair consists of (contains) the: 3. Portion where mitosis occurs (happens) called the hair follicle.
Mitosis means: the process by which a cell replicates (copies) into two (2) genetically identical daughter cells.
Attached to each hair root is an arrector pili muscle that pulls the hair shaft straight up in response to fear or cold or excitement causing: goose bumps aka goose pimples or goose flesh.
Genes (DNA) contain hereditary (familial) instructions (genetic traits) for hair follicles such as: 1. Color
Genes (DNA) contain hereditary (familial) instructions (genetic traits) for hair follicles such as: 2. Texture
Genes (DNA) contain hereditary (familial) instructions (genetic traits) for hair follicles such as: 3. Hair loss called alopecia.
Nails: The visible part of each nail is called the: nail body
The portion (part) of each nail that grows is called the: nail bed
The base (bottom) of each nail is covered by tissue called the: cuticle aka the eponychium.
Onychocryptosis means: abnormal condition of a hidden nail.
Onychocryptosis is aka: ingrown nails.
Onychocryptosis means: abnormal condition of a nail caused by fungus.
Paronychia means: condition of inflammation adjacent (next to) a nail.
Skin lesions: A lesion is: any pathological deviation in structure or function.
Deviation means: change.
A flat usually erythematous skin lesion is called a: macule (macular)
Erythematous means: pertaining to red.
A raised (elevated) skin lesion less than 1 cm is called a: papule (popular)
2.54 cm is equal to 1 inch.
A raised (elevated) skin lesion: greater than 1 cm is called a nodule (nodular)
A papule filled with pus is called a: pustule (pustular)
A patchy erythematous (re) edematous (swollen) and often pruritic (itchy) skin rash usually caused by an allergic reaction is called: urticaria (urticarial) aka hives
Raised urticaria (hives) are called: welts or wheals
Inflammatory popular and pustular eruptions ("breaking out") caused by clogging of sebaceous (oil) glands is abbreviated AV which stands for: acne vulgaris aka pimples or zits.
A raised (elevated) skin lesion filled with clear liquid is called a: vesicle (vesicular) or blister.
A lesion is any pathological deviation (change) in: structure or function.
A vesicle (blister) greater than 1 cm is called a: bulla (bullae)
A vesicle (blister) is a: raised (elevated) skin lesion filled with clear liquid.
Vesicular (blister) and pustular skin lesions caused by staphylococcus (staph) or streptococci (strep) especially in infants and children is called: impetigo
Pustular means: papular (raised) and filled with pus.
Whiteheads and blackheads are called: comedo (comedones)
Infection of a hair follicle and adjacent tissue is called a: furuncle (furunclar) or boil
A group (car load) of furuncles is called a: carbuncle (carbuncular)
A furuncle is an: infection of a hair follicle and adjacent tissue.
A collection ( accumulation) of pus is called an: abscess (abscesses)
A thickening or lump is called a: cyst
Superficial mechanical (rubbing) skin damage is called an: abrasion or scrape.
Superficial (surface) chemical skin damage is called an: excoriation (excoriate)
An example of an excoriation is: diaper dermatitis aka diaper rash
Tissue that is cut, torn or ripped is called a: laceration.
Ripping (tearing) tissue from the body is called an: avulsion
Erosion of tissue is called an: ulcer (ulcerative)
Erosion means: wearing away.
A skin ulcer (erosion) caused by immobility (no movement) resulting in prolonged pressure from body weight is abbreviated DU which stands for: decubitus ulcer aka a pressure ulcer or bedsore.
Decubitus ulcers (DU) commonly occur (happen) over bony projections called: bony prominences aka pressure points.
Bony prominences (pressure points) are located: where a bone is directly below the skin.
Bony prominences (projections) include the: 1. Olecranon aka elbows.
Bony prominences (projections) include the: 2. Scapula aka shoulder bone or shoulder blade.
Bony prominences (projections) include the: 3. Medial (middle) side of the patella aka kneecap.
Bony prominences (projections) include the: 4. Calcaneus aka heel bone.
Bony prominences (projections) include the: 5. Pelvic bone such as the ilium and/or ischium and/or coccyx (tail bone)
Bony prominences (projections) include the: 6. Cranial bone located at the posterior base of the skull called the occipital bone.
A black and blue mark caused by bleeding under the skin is called: ecchymosis aka hematoma or contusion or bruise.
Pinpoint skin hemorrhages are called: petechiae
A combination of ecchymosis and petechiae is called: purpura
Petechiae are: pinpoint skin hemorrhages.
New fibrous connective tissue deposited (placed) to close a wound is called: cicatrix or scar
A hypertrophied scar is called a: keloid (keloidal)
Hypertrophied means: excessive development
Keloids are associated with: surgery and 3rd degree burns.
Tissue swelling resulting from an accumulation of fluid is called: edema (edematous)
Accumulation means: collection.
Excessive swelling resulting in indentations after light palpation is called: pitting edema
Palpation means: touc
Necrotic tissue caused by thermal injury is called: eschar (escharotic)
Necrotic means: dead
A thermal injury is aka: a burn
Nevus (nevi) means: mole or birthmark.
The medical term for a new growth is: neoplasm (neoplasia) or tumor.
Neoplasm (neoplasia) and tumor are terms commonly associated with: cancer (CA)
A black metastatic tumor associated with exposure to UV radiation from the sun and/or tanning beds is abbreviated: MM which stands for malignant melanoma.
UV stands for: ultraviolet
A raised skin lesion caused by a HPV is called a: verruca (verrucae) aka a wart (warts)
HPV stands for: human papillomavirus
Skin pathology (disease) caused by fungal proliferation is called: mycosis or tinea or ringworm
Proliferation means: rapid reproduction
A crack (split) in the skin is called a: fissure.
Fissures (splits) can be caused by: tinia pedis aka foot ringworm or athlete's foot.
Diseases caused by the immune system attacking self (healthy tissue) are alled: autoimmune diseases.
An autoimmune disease causing erythematous (red) skin lesions with white or silvery flaky scales is called: psoriasis (psoriatic)
Dry skin is called: xeroderma
Dry scaly skin is called: ichthyosis (ichthyotic)
A dry rough protective crust that forms over an open wound is called a: crustation or scab.
Putrefaction is caused by tissue necrosis (death) and microbial proliferation (rapid reproduction) called: gangrene (gangrenous) aka decomposition ("decomp').
Putrefaction is: rot
Created by: bterrelonge