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Chapter 8

Muscular System

Skeletal Muscle also called striated or voluntary muscle; has crosswise stripes or striations; contractions can be voluntarily controlled
Cardiac Muscle composes bulk of heart; Cardiac fibers are branched; has dark bands called intercalated disks
Nonstriated muscle, or involuntary muscle also called smooth or visceral muscle; lacks striations when seen under a microscope, appears smooth; Found in walls of hollow structures like the digestive tract, blood vessels, etc
Regions of a Skeletal Muscle Origin, Insertion, Body
Bursae small synovial-lined sacs containing a small amount of synovial fluid; located between some tendons and underlying bones
myosin thick myofilaments
actin thin myofilaments
sarcomeres separated from each other by dark bands called Z lines
Prime Mover mainly responsible for producing a given movement
Synergist helps the prime mover produce a given movement
Antagonist opposes the action of a prime mover in any given movement
Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ) point of contact between a nerve ending and the muscle fiber
Motor Unit combination of a motor neuron with the muscle fibers it controls
Threshold Stimulus Minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract
"all of none" Once stimulated by a threshold stimulus, a muscle fiber will contract completely
Flexion Decreases an angle
Extension Increases an angle
Abduction Away from the midline
Adduction Toward the midline
Rotation Around an axis
Circumduction Move distal end of a part in a circle
Supination & Pronation Hand positions that result from twisting
Dorsiflexion & Plantar Flexion Ankle movements (upward and downward foot movement)
Inversion & Eversion Ankle movements (sideways)
Created by: TheLifeOfMJ



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