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Chapter 7

Skeletal System

Calcium hormones regulate calcium storage: calcitonin (CT) increases storage and parathyroid hormone (PTH) reduces stores of calcium
Fat stored in cavities of some bones
Hematopoiesis blood cell formation in red bone marrow
4 Major Bone types Long, Short, Flat, Irregular
Diaphysis of shaft hollow tube of hard compact bone
Medullary Cavity hollow area inside diaphysis that contains yellow marrow
Epiphyses, or ends of the bone spongy bone that contains red bone marrow
Articular Cartalige covers epiphyses and functions as a cushion
Periosteum strong membrane covering bone everywhere except at joint surfaces
Endosteum thin membrane lining medullary cavity
Structure of flat bones Spongy bone layer sandwiched between two compact bone layers; Diploe – spongy bone layer of a flat bone
Endochondral ossification cartilage models gradually replaced by calcified bone
Intramembranous ossification fibrous membranes are ossified into hard bone plates; fontanels are soft, not-yet-ossified regions
Articulation a joint between two or more bones
Synarthroses (no movement) – fibrous connective tissue grows between articulating bones; for example, sutures of skull
Amphiarthroses (slight movement) – cartilage connects articulating bones; for example, symphysis pubis
Diarthroses (free movement) – most joints belong to this class
Structures of freely movable joints joint capsule and ligaments hold adjoining bones together but permit movement at joint
Articular Cartilage covers joint ends of bones where they form joints with other bones
Synovial Membrane lines joint capsule and secretes lubricating fluid
Joint Cavity space between joint ends of bones
Bursa fluid-filled pouch that absorbs shock; inflammation of bursa is called bursitis
functions of freely moveable joints ball-and-socket, hinge, pivot, saddle, gliding, and condyloid
Created by: TheLifeOfMJ