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Chapter 6

Skin & Membranes

Membrane A thin, sheet like structure that may have many important functions in the body
Cutaneous Membrane The skin; primary organ of integumentary system.
3 types of Epithelial Tissue Membranes Cutaneous, Serous, and Mucous
Parietal layer The serous membrane that lines the wall of body cavity
Visceral covers organs within body cavity
Pericardium parietal and visceral layers line a fibrous sac around the heart and a visceral layer covers the heart wall
Pleura parietal and visceral layers line walls of thoracic cavity and cover the lungs
Peritoneum parietal and visceral layers line walls of abdominal cavity and cover the organs in that cavity
Pleurisy inflammation of the serous membranes that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs
Peritonitis inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity that line the walls and cover the abdominal organs [pericardiac friction rub]
Mucous Membranes contain an epithelial layer and a fibrous connective tissue layer; produce mucus, a thick secretion that keeps the membranes soft and moist
Skin Largest organ of the body
Epidermis Outermost and thinnest primary layer of skin; composed of several layers of stratified squamous epithelium
Stratum Germinativum innermost [deepest] layer of cells that continually reproduce, and new cells move toward the surface
Keratin Tough, waterproof protein
Stratum Corneum outermost layer of keratin-filled cells
Skin Pigment The amount and type of melanin in your skin depends first on the skin color genes you have inherited; however, other factors such as sunlight exposure can modify this hereditary effect.
Skin Color Changes (1) Sunlight promotes additional pigmentation (2) Pink flush indicates increased blood volume or increased blood oxygen (3) Cyanosis – bluish color of skin indicates decreased blood oxygen level
Dermal-epidermal junction The deeper cells of the epidermis are packed tightly together; Gluelike layer between the dermis and epidermis; small bumps called dermal papillae help stabilize the junction
Blisters caused by breakdown of union between cells or primary layers of skin
Dermis The subcutaneous tissue is sometimes called the superficial fascia or hypodermis; deeper and thicker of the two primary skin layers and composed largely of connective tissue
Subcutaneous tissue Also called the superficial fascia or hypodermis; Located deep to the dermis, but is not part of the skin; Loose fibrous and adipose tissue are prominent in this layer
Lanugo Soft hair of fetus and newborn
Hair Papilla Hair growth begins
Hair Follicle Hair growth requires epidermal tube-like structure
Shaft Hair root that lies hidden in follicle and visible part of hair
Root Lies hidden in a groove and is hidden by cuticle
Arrector Pili Smooth muscle of the skin that produces "goose bumps" and causes hair to stand up straight
Sensory Nerve Endings make is possible for skin to act as a sense organ
Tactile (Meissner) Corpuscle capable of detecting light touch
Lamellar (Pacini) Corpuscle capable of detecting pressure
Eccrine Sweat Glands Most numerous, important, and widespread of the sweat glands; Produce perspiration or sweat, which flows out through pores on skin surface; Function throughout life and assist in body heat regulation
Apocrine Glands Found primarily in axilla and around genitalia; Secrete a thicker secretion quite different from eccrine perspiration; Breakdown of secretion by skin bacteria produces odor
Sebaceous Glands secrete oil or sebum for hair and skin; Level of secretion increases during adolescence hormones; Sebum in sebaceous gland ducts may darken to form a blackhead
Functions of the Skin Protection, Temperature, Sense of organ activity, Excretion, Synthesis of vitamin D
4 types of Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma; Basal cell carcinoma; Malignant melanoma; Kaposi sarcoma
Causes of skin cancer Genetic predisposition; Sun’s UV radiation damages skin cell DNA, causing mistakes during mitosis; Viral infection
Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) Caused by Kaposi sarcoma – associated herpes virus (KSHV); Purple papules on skin surface, which quickly metastasize internally
Squamous Cell Carcinoma common type of skin cancer; slow growing; lesion begin as painless, hard, raised nodules; will metastasize
Basal Cell Carcinoma Originates in cells that base of epidermis – often on upper face; Lesions begin as small raised areas that erode in center, bleed, and crust over; Less likely to metastasize than other skin cancer types
Malignant Melonoma Most serious form of skin cancer; May develop from benign, pigmented moles or excess UV radiation; Incidence in the United States is increasing; ABCDE rule of self-examination
Rule of Nines Body is divided into 11 areas of 9% each; additional 1% of body surface area is around the genitals
First-Degree Burns (partial-thickness) burns – only the surface layers of epidermis involved [typical sunburn]
Second-Degree Burns (partial-thickness) burns – involve the deep epidermal layers and always cause injury to the upper layers of the dermis [With second-degree burns, complete destruction of the dermis does not occur; scarring is common.]
Third-Degree Burns (full-thickness) burns – characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis [Third-degree burns are initially insensitive to pain but intense pain is soon experienced.]
Fourth-Degree Burns full-thickness burns that extend to muscle or bone [Fourth-degree burns may require skin grafting or amputation of limbs.]
Created by: TheLifeOfMJ



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