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Chapter 5

Organ Systems

TermDefinition
Organ a structure made up of two or more kinds of tissues organized in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function that can any tissue alone.
Organ System a group of organs arranged in such a way that they can together perform a more complex function than can any organ alone.
Integumentary System Protection – primary function; Regulation of body temperature; Synthesis of chemicals [Vitamin D]; Sense organ
Skeletal System Supporting framework for entire body; Protection of brain and internal organs; Movement [with joints and muscles]; Storage of minerals {calcium, magnesium, phosphorus}; Formation of blood cells {bone marrow makes the blood}
Muscular System Movement; Maintenance of body posture; Production of heat
Nervous system Communication between body organs; Integration of body functions; Control of body functions; Recognition of sensory stimuli
Endocrine system Secretion of special substances called hormones directly into the blood; Same as nervous system – communication, integration, control
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) system Transportation of substances throughout the body [nutrients, oxygen, hormones & wastes]; Regulation of body temperature; Immunity [body defense]
Immune systems Phagocytosis of bacteria; Chemical reactions that provide protection from harmful agents
Respiratory system Exchange of waste gas (carbon dioxide) for oxygen in the alveoli of the lungs; Filtration of irritants from inspired air; Regulation of acid-base balance
Digestive system Mechanical and chemical breakdown [digestion] of food; Absorption of nutrients; Elimination of undigested waste product – referred to as feces; Appendix holds bacteria that assist digestion
Urinary system “Clearing,” or cleaning, blood of waste products – excreted from the body as urine; Electrolyte balance; Water balance; Acid-base balance
Reproductive systems Survival of genes; Production of sex cells (male: sperm; female: ova); Transfer and fertilization of sex cells; Development and birth of offspring; Nourishment of offspring; Production of sex hormones
Body as a Whole No one body system functions entirely independently of other systems; All body systems are structurally and functionally interrelated and interdependent
Hair, Nails, Microscopic Sense Receptor, Sweat Glands & Oil Glands skin appendages
Number of Bones in the body 206
Ligaments bands of fibrous tissue that hold bones together
Joints connections between bones that make movement possible
Brain & Spinal Cord location Central nervous system [CNS]
Peripheral Nervous System Cranial nerves and their branches, spinal nerves and their branches and sense organs
Functions Regulated by Hormones Growth, Metabolism, Reproduction, Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Lymphatic System Transportation of lymph; Immunity
Primary Organs in Digestive System Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anal Canal
Accessory Organs in Digestive System Teeth, Salivary Glands, Tongue, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Appendix
Male Reproductive Structures Gonads, Vas Deferens, Urethra, Prostate, External Genitalia [penis & scrotum]
Female Reproductive Structures Gonads, Uterus, Uterine Tubes, Vagina, External Genitalia, Mammary Glands
Created by: TheLifeOfMJ
 

 



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