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The Digestive Tract

QuestionAnswer
List 3 other names the digestive tract may be reffered to as? Gastrointestinal System, (GI) , and Alimentary Canal
What is the primary function of the Digestive tract? to break down food, prepare it for absorption and eliminate waste.
mouth to anus mouth, pharynx,esophagus, sromach,small intestine,large intestine, rectum, anus
how is food absorbed into the bloodstream? it's mixed with enzymes and broken down into nutrient molecules
what happens to waste materials that cannot be absorbed in the blood? they are eliminated through defectation (bowel movements)
What is another name for the accesory organs? Adnexa
What are the three accessory organs? liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
what's another name for the mouth? oral cavity
what is the oral cavity formed by? cheeks(bucca),lips,tongue,hard palate,soft palate,teeth.
What are the teeth responsible for? mechanical breakdown of food
what teeth are the best adapted for biting off large pieces of food? incisors
what are the 3 pairs of salivary glands? sublingual,submandibular,and parotid
what do these glands do? they secrete saliva which contains important digestive enzymes that help with the chemical breakdown of food
what is the saliva responsible for? chemical breakdown of food mechanically by chewing (mastication)
how is bolus made? chewing(mastication) makes your food into a soft paste-like material called bolus
what is bolus a mixture of? solid food particles reduced in size and saliva
what does the tongue do? manipulates the bolus during chewing and moves the bolus to the back of the mouth for swallowing (deglutition) also aids in speech
What is papillae and what does it contain? its the rough surface of the tongue and contains 4 taste buds: sweet, sour,salty and bitter
what forms the roof of the mouth? hard and soft palates. hard palate (anterior portion) soft palate (posterior portion)
what could happen if the palantine tonsils swell? could interfere with breathing and swallowing
continuing down, the bolus is pushed by the tongue to where? into the pharynx and is guided by the uvula (v-shaped structure)
what is the function of the epiglottis it folds back to cover the trachea during swallowing. Any other time it is upright allowing air to move freely to the lungs
the pharynx is divided into three portions. what are they? nasopharynx,oropharynx,laryngopharynx
nasopharynx pharynx connects to the nasal cavity
oropharynx pharynx connects to the oral cavity
laryngopharynx the lower portions divide below the larynx (voice box)to form 2 tubes - one that leads to the lungs (trachea) and one that leads to the stomach (esophagus) The laryngopharynx is superior (above) to the esophagus and trachea, but inferior to the oropharynx
what is the stomach and where is it located? sac like structure located in the LUQ (upper left quadrant) of the abdominal cavity. Extends from the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum)
two types of digestion take place in the Digestive system what are they and give an example of each? mechanical-chewingchemical-digestive enzymes
what is the cardiac (esophageal) sphincter composed of and what do they do? composed of muscle fibers that constrict once food has passed into the stomach. Prevents stomach contents from regurgitating back into the esophagus
List the 3 portions of the stomach. where does most digestion take place? body-large centre portion-mainly storage areasfundus-upper portion-mainly storage areapylorus-funnel shaped terminal portion-most digestion happens here
what is the fuction of rugae? unfolds as stomach fills, allowing distension.digestive glands within the rugae produce hrdrochloric acid(hcl)and enzymes. the secretions from the digestive glands coupled with the mechanical churning of the stomach turn the bolus into chyme
what is rugae? the interior stomach lining is composed of mucosa and contain rugae (macroscopic longitudinal folds)
List the 3 portions of the stomach. where does most digestion take place? body-large centre portion-mainly storage areasfundus-upper portion-mainly storage areapylorus-funnel shaped terminal portion-most digestion happens here
what is the fuction of rugae? unfolds as stomach fills, allowing distension.digestive glands within the rugae produce hrdrochloric acid(hcl)and enzymes. the secretions from the digestive glands coupled with the mechanical churning of the stomach turn the bolus into chyme
what is rugae? the interior stomach lining is composed of mucosa and contain rugae (macroscopic longitudinal folds)
what is chyme? the secretions from the digestive glands coupled with the mechanical churning of the stomach turn the bolus into chyme ( a semi-liquid)
what is peristalsis? is the co-ordinated, rythmic muscle contractions which propel food through the gi tract (from the pharynx to the anus)
where do most ulcers occur and why? in the stomach and duodenum because digestive glands produce hcl and enzymes (pepsin)
what is villi and it's function? finger-like projections -help absorbs nutrients
what is the pyloric sphincter? the valve that controls movement of food between the stomach and small intes. prohibiting regurgitation or backflow
what is the small intestine? coiled 20 foot long tube that begins at the pyloric sphincter and extends to the large intestine
small intestine contains 3 parts, what are they? duodenum-10 inches longjejunum-8 feet longIleum-12 feet long
name the functions of the duodenum where most chemical digestion takes place receives fluids from the pancreas and gallbladder via the common bile duct and has an important role in absorbing acid
functions of the jejunum absorbs nutrients and digested material and has numerous villae(finger-like outgrowths) which helps with this process
functions of the ileum digestion completed by enzymes that breakdown carbs,fats and proteins. Absorption of food also occurs here
The large intestine begins at the ileum and extends to the anus. List the major regions in order including the parts contained in each region cecum,vermiform appendix,colon,ascending colon,descending colon,sigmoid colon, rectum and anus
List the adnexa of the digestive system and give a brief descriptionof their anatomy and physiology gallbladder-stores bile, interior surface of the liver, releases bile into the duodenum liver-largest glandular organ, prod. bile,stores vitms pancreas-posterior and slighty inferior to stomach, performs endocrine and exocrine functions,
list 2 types of peptic ulcers gastric ulcers-develop in stomach,duodenal ulcers-occur in duodenum closest to stomach
describe the role helicobacter pylori plays in peptic ulcer disease bacterium that leads to the pud weakens mucosa making it sesceptible to hcl and pepsin
list the 3 common types of hepatitis and give a brief description of each hep a-infectous hep, ingestion of contaminated food-h20,milk. hep b-serum hep:transmitted by routes other than mouth i.e blood transfusions sexual contact. hep c-same transmissions as a&b (no vaccine avail)
what is cholelithiasis and how is it treated? presence or formation of gallstones in gallbladder or common bile duct. lothotripsy may be used to blast stones
what is barium swallows? diagnostic test-xray of upper GI tract to locate abnormalities, ulcers and gallstones
briefly explain GERD backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to malfunction of the sphincter portion of the esophagus. may occur whenever pressure in the stomach is greater than in the esophagus -may be ass. with heartburn, chest pain ect.
Created by: meliss_000