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Devon Anatomy Q1

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Organizational level of living things in order chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system and organism
What is chemical organizational level of living things the smallest level, made up of molecules and compounds, e.g. insolent
What is cellular organizational level of living things molecules combined to form a structure that various in function, size and shape
What is tissue organizational level of living things its a group of similar cells, with similar extra cellular matrix e.g. bone sand cartilage
What is organ organizational level of living things two or more tissue types form organs with recognizable shape and specialized task e.g. skin and heart
What is organ system organizational level of living things it is two or more organs carrying out broad functions in the body e.g. circulatory system where heart and blood vessels work together
Types of tissue connective, epithelial, muscular, and nervous
What is organism organizational level of living things organ systems function all together
General characteristics of all organism reproduction, excretion, responsiveness, growth, movement, homeostasis, metabolism, evolution, and
Define characteristics of Reproduction of all organism two forms of reproduction in multi-cellular life: cells reproduce for growth and cell repair of damaged or old cells. the second type is when the organ reproduces.
Define characteristics of Excretion of all organism end of metabolism result in wast products that become toxic when accumulated so excretion occurs
Define characteristics of Responsiveness of all organism response to stimuli in the area perceived through the senses
Define characteristics of Growth of all organism abundance of anabolic processes, either increase in the number of cells or the size of an individual cell
Define characteristics of Movement of all organism either movement of organism or of the cells within the organism itself
Define characteristics of Homeostasis of all organism the balance in the bodies overall functions. there re two types of homeostasis feed back loop, which re positive and negative.
Define characteristics of Metabolism of all organism carrying out our chemical processes; building processes are known as anabolism such as building muscles. breaking down processes are known as catabolism such as food digestion.
Define characteristics of Evolution of all organism genes change overtime
Define Homeostasis ability to maintain a stable internal environment e.g. regulates body temperature and PH of blood
What is a feedback loop? change in regulate variable
Types of feedback loop positive and negative
Define positive feedback loop change in the variable causes an increase in the output, e.g. blood coagulation
Define negative feedback loop change in the variable causes a decrease in the output, e.g. vasodilation
Parts of the feedback loop receptor, control center, affector
Definition of receptor part of (feedback loop) receptor is the part of the system that detect the change of variables in the system
Definition control center part of (feedback loop) control center determines if variable is to low or to high in the system
Definition affector part of (feedback loop) affector is the part of the system that carry-out decrease or increase in the output of the system
What is the Afferent Pathway between the receptor and control center
What is the Efferent Pathway between the affector and control center
Define atom basic unit of a chemical element
Define molecule two or more atoms that are bonded together
Define element an atom with the same number of protons
What is atomic mass its the number of protons and neutrons combine
What is atomic number its the number of protons in a nucleus which determines the chemical properties of elements
Know how atomic number and atomic mass can be calculated by using the periodic table of elements atomic number x two = atomic mass
What are subatomic particles and their charges protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons have no charge
Which subatomic particle determines an atom's characteristics protons
Which subatomic particle is important to determine chemical reaction electrons
What are the energy levels in Atoms the amount of electron shells an atom has
What are the energy levels in Octet Rule This rule states that the second and third electron shell can each only "8" electrons
What is Isotope Isotope are elements that differ in number of neutrons, but they have the same number of protons
What are Nobel gases and their characteristics Nobel gases are located in group zero on the periodic table, extremely non- reactive, and only have two electrons in their valances shell
Define Ions Ion is an atom with a positive and negative charge
Define Anions Anions - Ion that has a negative charge and has MORE electrons than normal
Define Cations Cations - Ion that has a positive charge. It has LESS electrons than normal
What are Ionic Bonds Ionic - Anions and Cations form bonds, additionally, they are between non medal atoms and medal item, and hydrogen is the only exception in its periodic group that can form Ionic bonds. Ex. NaCl
What are Covalent Bonds Covalent Bonds - there are two types - polar and non-polar. Polar bonds have a dipole, which means one part of molecule is negative and the other part is positive. Non Polar electrons are shared equally.
What are Hydrogen Bonds they are weak bonds normally between molecules; they don't share electrons. Example is DNA
Which bond is the strongest Ionic and Covalent bonds
Examples of Covalent bonds Covalent Bonds an e.g: Non polar bond: H2 (hydrogen molecule), e.g. Polar Bond: H20 (water)
Define single, double and triple covalent bonds? the electrons pairs that are bonded in each bond. Single = one electron pair bonded; while Double = two electron pair bonded, and so on.
Examples of single, double and triple covalent bonds Single ex. CH4 (Methane); Double ex. O2 (Oxygen Gas); Triple ex. N2 (Nitrogen Gas)
Describe the different types of Chemical Reactions Catabolic, Anabolic , and Oixdation Reduction, Endergonic, and Exergonic reactions
Examples of Chemical Reaction - Catabolic Catabolic - a decomposition reaction where larger substances are broken down into smaller ones
Define Metabolism carrying out our chemical processes
Define Catabolism is known as the breaking down of larger substances to smaller
Define Anabolism is reinforcement or building up of substances
Definition of Acids and Bases Acid is a hydrogen ion donor. Base is a hydrogen ion acceptor
Different between weak and strong Acids and Bases Strong Base has a lot of OH- ions. Weak Bases have fewer OH- ions. Strong Acids have high level of hydrogen ions. Weak Acid = fewer levels of hydrogen ions.
What are Buffers buffers are chemical systems that resist changes in PH
How do Buffers work Buffers prevent large swings in the PH when acid or base is added to a solution
What are the pH scale of Acidic, Basic and Neutral A solution with a PH scale greater than "7" is known as Base. A solution with a PH scale less than "7" is known as Acidic. A solution with a PH scale = to "7" is known as Neutral
Examples of Chemical Reaction - Endergonic a reaction that requires an input of energy that is greater than the energy of the reactants, So the product contains more energy than the reactants
Examples of Chemical Reaction - Exergonic a reaction that occurs when reactants have more energy than is needed for the reaction to proceed, So the products are left with less energy than the reactants
Examples of Chemical Reaction - Oxidation Reduction also known as Exchange Reaction, occurs when one or more atoms from the reactants are exchanged for another, bonds or both broken and form
Examples of Chemical Reaction - Anabolic also known as Synthesis Reaction, these reactions build chemical bonds
Difference between acid and bases in terms of accepting H+ and OH- Acids release H+ and most Bases take in OH-
How do you calculate the difference of H+ concentrations in two solutions with two different PH Use a litmus paper
Define salts and provide example Salts are any Ionic Compound with a metal catonic and a non-anion. e.g. electrolytes and potassium ions
Define Histology study of tissue
Define Cytology study of cells
Define Anatomical Position a human body placed upright, with palms flat facing forward.
Define Saggital Plane Divides body or body part into right and left section
Define Frontal Plane AKA Coronal plane. Divides the body or body part into Anterior and Posterior sections
Define Transverse Plane AKA Horizontal or Cross Section plane. Divides the body or body part into Superior and Inferior parts.
What is Core Principle - Gradients the difference in the concentration of the variable in two separate environments (i.e. osmosis)
What is in the Posterior Body Cavity contains cranial, vertebral or spinal cavity
What is in the Anterior Body Cavity this cavity is separated by diaphragm. AKA Abdominopelvic or Thoracic Cavity
What is in the Abdominopelvic Cavity pelvic cavity separated by quadtrants, right/left lower and upper
What is the Parasagittal section Divides the body into unequal right and left parts
What is the Midsagittal section AKA Medial plane. divides the body into equal right and left parts
Directional Term - What is Proximal closer to the point of origin (generally the trunk) pair with Distal
Directional Term - What is Inferior towards the tail, paired with Superior
Directional Term - What is Distal further away from the point of origin, paired with Proximal
Directional Term - What is Superficial closer to the surface, paired with Deep
Directional Term - What is Superior towards the head, paired with Inferior
Directional Term - What is Deep farther below the surface, paired with Superficial
Directional Term - What is Medial closer to the middle of body or body part, inner side, paired with Lateral
Directional Term - What is Lateral further away from middle of body or body part, on the outer side, paired with Medial
Organ Functions - Integumentary System skin, nails and hair; retains water; regulates body temperature; produces vitamin D; and provides boundary from external environment
Organ Functions - Skeletal System bones and joints; provides leverage for movement; support organ production; produces blood cells and stores calcium salts
Organ Functions - Muscular System skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle; generates heat; controls body openings; promotes movement
Organ Functions - Endocrine System ovaries, testes, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thymus gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, addrenial gland, hypothalamus. Regulates body functions via Hormones.
Organ Functions - Cardiovascular System heart and blood vessels; transports cells, nutrients and other substances, removes waste from tissues; moves oxygen poor blood to lungs and oxygen rich blood to tissues
Organ Functions - Lymphatic System lymphatic vessels, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes, and spleen; Provides immunity; protecting against disease; returns excess tissue fluid to cardio vascular system
Organ Functions - Respiratory System lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and nasal cavity; Balances PH in blood or moves CO2 and moves oxygen to the blood
Organ Functions - Digestive System mouth, large/small intestine, stomach, liver, gall bladder, salivatory glands, and pancreas. Absorbs nutrients, removes food water, balances PH electrolytes and fluid levels.
Organ Functions - Urinary System urethra, urinary bladder, kidneys and ureters; Balance PH, fluid levels, and remove waste.
Organ Functions - Reproductive System uterus, testes, ovaries, to reproduce
Organ Functions - Nervous System brain, nerves, and spinal cord; regulates body functions, sensation, movement, automatic functions and all higher mental functions via nerve impulses
Created by: miataz