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01. Which of the following are always members of a person’s family of orientation?(A) Spouse(s) (B) Son(s) and daughter(s) (C) Parent(s) (D) Aunt(s) and uncle(s) (E) Grandparent(s) 1. The correct answer is (C). The family of orientation is the family into which a person is born.
02. A family unit that is composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household is(A) a disjointed kinship (B) an extended family (C) a nuclear family (D) a conjugal family (E) 2. The correct answer is (B). The nuclear family is composed of parent(s) and children only. The extended family includes other relatives.
03. The concurrent marriage of a person of one sex (male or female) with two or more members of the opposite sex (male or female) is known as(A) polygamy (B) civil union (C) polyandry (D) group marriage (E) polygyny 3. The correct answer is (A). Polygamy can be a marriage of one man with more than one woman, or one woman with more than one man.
04. The practice of marrying within one’s own social group or category is(A) exogamy (B) homology (C) heterogamy (D) endogamy (E) monogamy 4. The correct answer is (D). Endogamy is the tendency for most people in a group to marry others who are like themselves.
05. The social institution that ensures the mainte- nance of society through the production, distri- bution, and consumption of goods and services is(A) work (B) the economy (C) politics (D) the power elite (E) education 5. The correct answer is (B). The economy is a critically important social institution that directly affects all other social institutions.
06. Tangible objects that are necessary or desired are referred to as(A) products (B) materials (C) goods (D) assets (E) services 6. The correct answer is (C). The buying and selling of goods is a key part of the economy.
07. Steel workers who process metal ore are engaged in what kind of production?(A) Primary sector (B) Secondary sector (C) Tertiary sector (D) Quarterly sector (E) Terminal sector 7. The correct answer is (B). Secondary sector production involves the processing of primary sector raw materials, in this case ore, into finished goods.
08. Private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without govern- ment intervention, is characteristic of(A) capitalism (B) socialism (C) imperialism (D) mercantilism (E) democracy 8. The correct answer is (A). Capitalist econo- mies are based on private property and the pursuit of wealth.
09. The means through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups is(A) government (B) the economy (C) politics (D) the military (E) family 9. The correct answer is (C). Groups and individuals seek political power in order to control access to scarce resources.
10. Power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive is known as(A) control (B) leverage (C) authority (D) political influence (E) militarism 10. The correct answer is (C). People view those with authority as having the right to exercise power.
11. According to Max Weber, power legitimized on the basis of a leader’s exceptional personal qualities is what kind of authority?(A) Charismatic (B) Traditional (C) Coercive (D) Rational-legal (E) Influential 11. The correct answer is (A). Examples of charismatic leaders are Mohandas Gandhi, Benito Mussolini, Martin Luther King Jr., and John F. Kennedy.
12. Which of the following provides U.S. citizens a voice in their government through elected representatives who serve as bridges between the citizenry and the government?(A) Direct participatory democracy (B) Representative democracy (C) Full voting rig 12. The correct answer is (B). Federal, state, and local officials are charged with representing the views of their constituents.
13. Which of the following is NOT a manifest function of education?(A) Socialization (B) Transmission of culture (C) Production of social networks (D) Social control (E) 13. The correct answer is (C). Manifest func- tions are intended and overtly recognized by the participants of a social unit.
14. “Proper” attitudes toward education, socially approved dress and manners, knowledge about books, art, music, and other forms of high and popular culture are all examples of(A) cultural mystique (B) the proper social grace (C) accumulated social wisdom 14. The correct answer is (D). Persons who possess more cultural capital are able to gain greater access to the dominant class.
15. Assignment of students to specific courses and educational programs based on their test scores, previous grades, or both is(A) age grading (B) intelligence grouping (C) tracking (D) ability integration (E) 15. The correct answer is (C). Research has shown that tracking affects students’ academic achievement and their choice of careers.
16. The type of social arrangement in which people are able to gain higher positions based on their intellectual and educational credentials rather than through the influence of personal contacts is(A) a tracking orientation (B) a credentialist orientatio 16. The correct answer is (C). Education provides one of the most important credentials for use in the job market.
17. Which of the following is Emile Durkheim’s term for those aspects of life that are extraordi- nary or supernatural?(A) Profane (B) Spiritual (C) Sacred (D) Magical (E) Special 17. The correct answer is (C). Examples of sacred objects are the Christian cross, a national flag, and a mosque.
18. Belief in a single supreme being or God who is responsible for significant events such as the creation of the world is(A) transcendent idealism (B) monotheism (C) polytheism (D) unit theism (E) Zen 18. The correct answer is (B). Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are all monotheistic religions because followers worship only one God.
19. The study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population is(A) social epidemiology (B) social welfare (C) social engineering (D) social biology (E) health demography 19. The correct answer is (A). Social epidemi- ologists examine disease agents, the environ- ment, and the human host.
20. According to Talcott Parsons, each of the follow- ing applies to persons who play the sick role, EXCEPT(A) they are not responsible for their condition (B) they are temporarily exempt from their normal roles and obligations (C) they must seek medical 20. The correct answer is (E). People who are viewed as sick are temporarily absolved of their responsibilities and duties due to circumstances that are perceived by society as beyond their control.
21. All of the following are factors that have eroded the American Dream for the middle class, EXCEPT(A) escalating housing prices (B) blocked mobility on the job (C) the cost-of-living squeeze (D) a decline in the quality of medical services (E) the need 21. The correct answer is (D). Over the past several decades, there has been an increase in the quality of medical services, although the lack of universal health care does not make these advances available to all.
22. Who are the working poor?(A) People who live from just above to just below the poverty line(B) Seldom-employed individuals who are caught in long-term deprivation because of low education, low employability, low income, and low self-esteem(C) Skilled 22. The correct answer is (A). Members of the working poor typically hold poorly paid un- skilled or service sector jobs that offer little economic security.
23. Which of the following BEST expresses the functionalist explanation of social inequality?(A) Powerful people are able to shape and distribute the rewards, resources, privileges, and opportunities in society.(B) Positions that are most important for th 23. The correct answer is (B). In order to motivate people to undergo the arduous training needed to become a physician, the financial rewards for physicians must be high.
24. Powerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions at the expense of others, according to what theoretical perspec- tive?(A) Functionalist (B) Conflict (C) Symbolic interactionist (D) Psychological (E) Differential associ 24. The correct answer is (B). According to conflict theorists, ideology is a means of encour- aging members of society to believe that the status quo is acceptable and desirable.
25. The hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic re- sources is(A) social distinction (B) invidious distinctiveness (C) social stratification (D) social layering (E) sociobiology 25. The correct answer is (C). Social stratifica- tion determines which groups are allowed to gain access to wealth, power, and prestige.
26. According to Karl Marx, which of the following statements about capitalists is NOT true?(A) They own the means of production. (B) They control the means of production. (C) They exploit the workers. (D) They are vulnerable to displacement bymachines or 26. The correct answer is (D). It is the workers, not the capitalist owners, who are at risk of displacement by machines or cheap labor.
27. Large computer software corporations are representative of twenty-first century capitalism, which increasingly is based on(A) heavy industry (B) information technology (C) “smokestack” industries (D) narrow national interests (E) 27. The correct answer is (B). Computer soft- ware corporations deal with information, unlike corporations in heavy industry that were domi- nant in earlier times.
28. According to Max Weber, individual power depends on a person’s position within(A) primary groups (B) bureaucracies (C) family structures (D) kinship networks (E) religious groups 28. The correct answer is (B). Weber believed that social power in modern societies is held by bureaucracies.
29. For the upper class, wealth most often is the result of(A) job training (B) hard work (C) inheritance (D) education (E) salaries and benefits 29. The correct answer is (C). Research has shown that those who inherit wealth are often three or four generations removed from the person who initially amassed the wealth.
30. Which of the following categories of people has the highest net worth overall?(A) Divorced persons (B) Separated persons (C) Single persons (D) Married persons (E)Persons under age 30 30. The correct answer is (D). Overall, married individuals have a higher net worth than unmar- ried individuals.
31. AccordingtoKarlMarx’stheoryofclassrelations,(A) the bourgeoisie consists of those who must sell their labor to those who own the means of production(B) the proletariat consists of those who own the means of production(C) class relationships involve in 31. The correct answer is (C). According to Marx, exploitation results when capitalists pay workers less than the resale value of the goods that the workers produce.
32. Karl Marx’s term for government, schools, churches, and all other social institutions that produce and disseminate ideas that perpetuate the existing system of exploitation is society’s(A) substructure (B) superstructure (C) ecostructure (D) basic str 32. The correct answer is (B). According to Marx, the economy is the base upon which the superstructure of the other social institutions is erected.
33. In Max Weber’s stratification typology, which class consists of skilled, semiskilled, and un- skilled workers?(A) The working class (B) The middle class (C) The divisional class (D) The lower-middle class (E)The pink-collar class 33. The correct answer is (A). Weber divided members of social classes into those who live off their investments and those, like the working class, who live off wage labor.
34. The respect or regard with which a person is regarded by others is(A) wealth (B) power (C) status (D) authority (E) prestige 34. The correct answer is (E). Prestige should not be confused with status, which is a socially defined characteristic such as age, sex, or race.
35. Which of the following factors is NOT a con- tributor to the global feminization of poverty?(A) Poor women worldwide do not have access to commercial credit.(B) Poor women continue to be trained in low wage jobs.(C)The income gap between men and women 35. The correct answer is (D). Women and children are disproportionately affected by poverty in low-income economies.
36. All of the following statements regarding contin- gent work are true, EXCEPT that it(A) is part-time and temporary (B) is found in colleges and universities (C) is found in the federal government and inthe health care field (D) often involves subcontr 36. The correct answer is (E). The opposite is true. By hiring contingent workers, employers are able to cut costs. However, contingent workers have low pay and little job security.
37. The process by which some characteristics of a profession are eliminated is(A) autonomy (B) specialized training (C) occupational recognition (D) deprofessionalization (E) retraining 37. The correct answer is (D). Pharmacists used to prepare drug formulas in the store. For the most part, this is now done in the factories of the pharmaceutical companies.
38. Negotiations between employers and labor union leaders on behalf of workers are referred to as(A) a lockout (B)mediation (C) binding arbitration (D)agency shop tactics (E) collective bargaining 38. The correct answer is (E). Collective bargain- ing allows unionized workers to speak with a unified voice when negotiating with employers over terms and conditions of employment.
39. All of the following are shared by members of same ethnic groups, EXCEPT(A) unique cultural traits (B) a feeling of ethnocentrism (C) a common educational level (D) territoriality (E) a common language 39. The correct answer is (C). Educational levels vary within each ethnic group.
40. What do sociologists term a group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights within a society?(A) Majority (B) Minority (C) Superior (D) Powerful (E) Social class 40. The correct answer is (A). The majority group is dominant in a particular society, while subordi- nate groups are dominated by the majority.
41. A negative attitude based on faulty generaliza- tions about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups is referred to as(A) redlining (B) discrimination (C) prejudice (D) racism (E)hate crime 41. The correct answer is (C). Prejudice is an attitude that may or may not result in discrimina- tion, which is a behavior.
42. A football coach is happy to work with African- American players, but feels that white fans will accept only a certain percentage of people of color on the team, thus affecting his hiring practices. According to sociologist Robert Merton, this coach i 42. The correct answer is (B). Merton’s analysis suggests that prejudice and discrimination often occur together, but sometimes people and groups can engage in one without engaging in the other.
43. At birth, male and female infants are distin- guished by the genitalia used in the reproductive process, which are referred to as(A) gonads and fallopian tubes (B) primary sex characteristics (C) secondary sex characteristics (D) biological tendencies 43. The correct answer is (B). Primary sex characteristics are the biological sex organs, while secondary sex characteristics are sex- related physical traits other than the sex organs, such as wider hips in women and beards in men.
44. Preference for emotional sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexual- ity), the same sex (homosexuality), or both sexes (bisexuality) is one’s(A) feelings (B) behavior (C) identification (D) gender (E) orientation 44. The correct answer is (E). Research suggests that sexual orientation may have both biological and social origins.
45. The culturally and socially constructed differ- ences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with “femininity” and “masculinity” are known as(A) gender (B) sex (C) primary sexual identifiers (D) secondary se 45. The correct answer is (A). Gender is a social definition, while sex is a biological fact.
46. In the United States, males traditionally are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness, whereas females are expected to be passive and nurturing, which illustrates the concept of(A) sexual identity (B) gender identity (C) gender role (D) biological role 46. The correct answer is (C). Gender roles are attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.
47. What is the name used for bar graphs divided into five-year age cohorts, with the left side depicting the number or percentage of males in each age bracket and the right side providing the same information for females?(A) Demographic diagrams (B) Popu 47. The correct answer is (B). Population pyramids are useful tools for demographers in comparing the population composition of one society with another.
48. An estimate of the average lifetime in years of people born in a specific year is(A) life span (B) cohort projection (C) life prospects (D) life projection (E) life expectancy 48. The correct answer is (E). Life expectancy is much higher in the high-income nations of the world than in the low-income nations, where higher infant mortality rates greatly reduce life expectancy.
49. All of the following statements regarding the relationship between age and poverty in the United States are true, EXCEPT(A) older persons are at a much greater risk of living in poverty than are children(B) older women are twice as likely to be poor a 49. The correct answer is (A). Children are at a much greater risk of poverty than older persons.
50. Illnesses that are long-term or lifelong and that develop gradually or are present from birth are known as(A) acute illnesses (B) chronic illnesses (C) medical illnesses (D) temporary illnesses (E)sick roles 50. The correct answer is (B). Chronic illnesses are long-term, whereas acute illnesses occur suddenly and their effects are often immediate.
51. According to Ferdinand Tönnies, Gemeinschaft refers to(A) a traditional society in which social relation- ships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability(B) a large, urban society in which social bonds a 51. The correct answer is (A). Tönnies’ gemeinschaft/gesellschaft typology refers to the level of social solidarity in a community.
52. The United States has a larger homeless popula- tion today than in earlier times because of(A) higher rates of mental illness and deinstitutionalization(B) a significant increase in alcoholism and drug addiction(C) changes in structural factors in soc 52. The correct answer is (C). One type of structural factor that affects homelessness is the economy, in particular the availability of jobs.
53. What is Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence?(A) Mechanical solidarity (B) Status-oriented bonding (C) High-technology bo 53. The correct answer is (D). For Durkheim, organic solidarity is the “glue” that holds com- plex societies together.
54. The “old boy network” is an example of(A) laws regulating corporations (B) social deviance (C) a social network (D) a fast food chain(E)a commodity chain 54. The correct answer is (C). Traditionally, the “old boy network” provided jobs to friends, family, and fellow alumni of the elite, mostly white, Protestant, male schools of the Northeast. Women, people of color, and ethnic minorities were excluded fro
55. The subfield of sociology that examines popula- tion size, composition, and distribution is(A) social ecology (B) gerontology (C) social psychology (D) social dynamics (E) demography 55. The correct answer is (E). Demographic analysis is a part of many sociological studies because population changes affect all aspects of social life.
56. A group of people who live in a specified geo- graphic area are referred to as(A) nomads (B) clients (C) protesters (D) a population (E)a sample 56. The correct answer is (D). Changes in populations occur as a result of fertility, mortal- ity, and migration.
57. The actual level of childbearing of an individual or a population is referred to as(A) reproduction (B) fecundity (C) fertility (D) fruitfulness (E) preparation 57. The correct answer is (C). The primary factor affecting the fertility of a society is the number of women of childbearing age.
58. The number of people living in a specific geographic area (for example, people per square mile) is(A) a distribution (B) migration (C) emigration (D) a neighbor Index (E) density 58. The correct answer is (E). Density is much greater in urban areas than in rural areas.
59. According to urban sociologists, a city is(A) a metropolitan region (B) a relatively dense and permanent settlementof people (C) a census category (D) a suburban or rural area (E)better organized than a rural region 59. The correct answer is (B). Today, 50 percent of the world’s population lives in cities.
60. The subfield of sociology that examines social relationships and political and economic struc- tures in the city is(A) urban planning (B) zoning (C) urban sociology (D) urban psychology (E) urbanology 60. The correct answer is (C). Urban sociolo- gists study cities, whereas rural sociologists examine relationships and structures in less densely populated areas.
61. The study of the relationship between people and their physical environment is known as(A) demography (B) urban sociology (C) human ecology (D) physical sociology (E) geology 61. The correct answer is (C). The human ecology approach was used by University of Chicago sociologists who studied the city during the early decades of the twentieth century.
62. In Herbert Gans’ typology of urban dwellers, those who live in tightly knit neighborhoods that resemble small towns are(A) cosmopolites (B) ethnic villagers (C) yuppies (D) buppies (E) natives 62. The correct answer is (B). Some ethnic villagers are recent immigrants who feel most comfortable living among people of their own group.
63. What is the term that sociologists use for the situation where the number of low-income neighborhood residents increases and they begin to spill over into adjacent middle-class neighbor- hoods, which causes the middle class to move out, thus expanding 63. The correct answer is (D). The invasion- succession cycle results as groups gain upward social mobility and move from central cities.
64. A continuous concentration of two or more cities and their suburbs that have grown until they form an interconnected urban area is a(A) megalopolis (B) central metropolitan area (C) census district (D) suburban complex (E) coastal area 64. The correct answer is (A). The East Coast of the United States contains a number of mega- lopolises.
65. What is the term used to describe the situation where banks have policies of refusing to make loans for housing and businesses to persons residing in low-income or blighted communities?(A) Capital investment (B) Space allocation (C) Concentric zone de 65. The correct answer is (D). The term redlining refers to drawing a line on a map, and denying loans to persons on the “wrong” side of the line.
66. A group to which a person does NOT belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility is(A) an in-group (B) an out-group (C) a secondary group (D) a reference group (E)a family of orientation 66. The correct answer is (B). All groups set boundaries by distinguishing between insiders and outsiders.
67. A reference group is a group(A) that strongly influences members’ behavior and social attitudes(B) to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity(C) that strongly influences a person’ s behavior and social attitudes, reg 67. The correct answer is (C). Individuals often behave like members of a reference group in order to become a member of it.
68. Which of the following concepts is illustrated by the fact that a successful college president need not be effective in designing the college’s promotional brochures and a successful corpo- rate executive need not be able to program the department’s c 68. The correct answer is (D). In a bureaucracy, each person performs a specialized task, and is responsible for the correct performance of that task.
69. Systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to social norms are referred to as mechanisms of social(A) retaliation (B) emphasis (C) control (D) deviance (E) status 69. The correct answer is (C). Social control may be internal (socialization) or external (sanctions).
70. According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, what occurs when people accept society’s goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them?(A) Conformity (B) Innovation (C) Rebellion (D) Ritualism (E) Retreatism 70. The correct answer is (B). Merton’s theory suggests that some crime is caused by society failing to provide a legal means for all to succeed.
71. The statement “The greater the degree of social harm, the more the offender should be punished” reflects the principle of(A) retribution (B) social protection (C) rehabilitation (D) deterrence (E)restitution 71. The correct answer is (A). Retribution is based on the idea that the punishment should fit the crime. More serious crimes should receive more serious sanctions.
72. An organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action is(A) a revolution (B) a civil disobedience group (C) a social movement (D) an interest collectivity (E)a plurality 72. The correct answer is (C). An example is the U.S. Civil Rights Movement of the twentieth century.
73. Movements seeking to bring about a total change in society are referred to as(A) revolutionary (B) reform (C) religious (D) alternative (E) incremental 73. The correct answer is (A). For example, terrorist organizations often seek revolutionary change.
74. People who are satisfied with their present condition are LESS likely to seek social change, according to the theory of(A) value-added (B) resource mobilization (C) functionalist (D) relative deprivation (E) symbolic interactionist 74. The correct answer is (D). As peoples’ expectations rise, they become dissatisfied if they believe they are not receiving their fair share, or if they think that change is not occur- ring quickly enough.
75. Voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and that typically violates dominant group norms and values is(A) social change (B) organizational behavior (C) institutional behavior (D) collective behavior (E) con 75. The correct answer is (D). Collective behavior can take various forms, including crowds, mobs, riots, panics, fads, fashions, and public opinion.
76. A relatively large number of people who are in one another’s immediate vicinity is termed a(A) mass (B) critical mass (C) category (D) crowd (E) reference group 76. The correct answer is (D). A crowd is distinct from a mass, which is a number of people who share an interest in a specific idea or issue but who are not in one another’s immediate vicinity.
77. The situation in which a teenage boy receives advice from his older sister about how to act on a first date is an example of(A) sociobiology (B) acculturation (C) socialization (D) high self-esteem (E) deskilling 77. The correct answer is (C). Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
78. What is Charles Horton Cooley’s term for the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others?(A) Development of personality (B) The “looking-glass” self (C) The “I” and the “me” (D) The human psyche(E)The “window of lif 78. The correct answer is (B). According to Charles Horton Cooley, people see themselves as they perceive others see them.
79. The process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person’s point of view is referred to as(A) generalized others (B) role-taking (C) significant others (D) self-concept(E) switching 79. The correct answer is (B). Children often engage in role-taking as they act out adult roles such as mother or teacher.
80. According to sociologists, what account(s) for virtually all patterns of human behavior?(A) Technology (B) Medical advancements (C) Culture (D) Values (E) Genes 80. The correct answer is (C). Human behavior patterns are primarily learned through the socialization process, which is culture-specific.
81. Traditions, beliefs, language, and philosophies are all examples of(A) material culture (B) cultural universals (C) cultural values (D) nonmaterial culture (E) value judgments 81. The correct answer is (D). Nonmaterial culture consists of abstract or intangible human creations, while material culture consists of tangible human creations.
82. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis(A) language is a given (B) language precedes thought (C) language is not related to categories ofthought (D) all of the world’s languages view the worldin a similar way (E) animals have complex language ability 82. The correct answer is (B). According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, languages provide mental categories that determine how speakers of each language think.
83. The complex framework of societal institutions and the social practices that make up a society and organize and establish limits on individual behavior are referred to as(A) social interaction (B) structurally patterned behavior (C) social structure ( 83. The correct answer is (C). Social structure provides the link between individuals and the society of which they are a part.
84. Any physical or social attribute or sign that so devalues a person’s social identity that it dis- qualifies that person from full social acceptance is a(A) norm (B) value (C) status (D) stigma (E) meritocracy 84. The correct answer is (D). Stigma is part of the process of social marginalization that distin- guishes between persons who are insiders and those who are outsiders.
85. Which of the following is an ascribed status?(A) Astronomer (B) Violinist (C) Female (D) College graduate (E) Grandparent 85. The correct answer is (C). Ascribed statuses are attributes that are conferred at birth.
86. The scholar Auguste Comte(A) is considered to be the founder of sociology (B) conducted the first scientific research insociology (C) coined the phrase “survival of the fittest” (D) co-authored the text Social Injustice (E)is best known for his study 86. The correct answer is (A). French philospher Auguste Comte (1798-1857) described sociology as a new science that would engage in the study of society.
87. According to sociologist C. Wright Mills, the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society is referred to as(A) the conflict perspective (B) symbolic interaction (C) reality perception (D) the sociological imag 87. The correct answer is (D). The sociological imagination helps us to distinguish between personal troubles, which affect an individual, and public issues, which affect large numbers of people or an entire society.
88. The first U.S. departments of sociology were established at(A) Columbia University and Spellman College (B) Harvard University and Yale University (C) University of Chicago and Atlanta Univer-sity (D) Howard University and Brown University (E)Princeto 88. The correct answer is (C). With its begin- nings in the 1890s, sociology is one of the newest disciplines in the U.S. college and university curriculum.
89. George Herbert Mead is one of the founders of the(A) conflict perspective (B) symbolic interaction perspective (C) functionalist perspective (D) feminist perspective (E) social control perspective 89. The correct answer is (B). Symbolic interactionism suggests that society is the sum of face-to-face interactions of individuals and groups.
90. Which of the following was NOT an accomplish- ment of sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois?(A) He utilized sociology as a method of social reform.(B) He helped to found the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Col- ored People).(C) He conducted a 90. The correct answer is (E). W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) was an influential sociologist at Atlanta University, an historically African- American institution.
91. The extent to which a study or research instru- ment yields consistent results is(A) reliability (B) the hypothesis (C) theory (D) a hunch (E) intuition 91. The correct answer is (A). A measure is reliable if it gives the same result each time it is used.
92. The process of systematically collecting informa- tion for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new idea is(A) research (B) polling (C) surveying (D) data gathering (E) spin 92. The correct answer is (A). Modern science is based on theory and research.
93. Any concept with measurable traits or character- istics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another is a(A) hypothesis (B) variable (C) problem (D) research design (E) trait 93. The correct answer is (B). Examples of important sociological variables are age, sex, race, educational level, and income.
94. If depression is assumed to be caused by loss of employment, then depression is treated here as(A) the dependent variable (B) an inductive variable (C) the independent variable (D) a quantitative research variable (E)a negative variable 94. The correct answer is (A). One can think of the dependent variable as the “effect” and the independent variable as the “cause.”
95. The research method in which the goal is scien- tific objectivity and the focus is on numerical data is known as(A) quantitative analysis (B) qualitative analysis (C) random variation (D) secondary analysis (E)the margin of error 95. The correct answer is (A). Sociological research may be quantitative or qualitative, depending on the topic of study and the demands of the research design.
96. In order for societies to produce social change and a better society, Karl Marx believed which of the following was necessary?(A) Class conflict (B) Economic conflict (C) Social conflict (D) Environmental conflict (E) Functional imperatives 96. The correct answer is (A). Marx believed that history is a struggle between dominant and subordinate social classes.
97. The role of a health club or golf club as a meeting ground for people seeking new business contacts is an example of(A) a dialectical function (B) a manifest function (C) a latent function (D) a dysfunction(E) an opportunistic function 97. The correct answer is (C). A latent function is an unintended or hidden function of an institu- tion or organization.
98. Which of the following sociological perspectives views society as a system in which each part contributes to the survival of the entire system?(A) Functionalist perspective (B) Conflict perspective (C) Interactionist symbolic perspective (D) Postmoder 98. The correct answer is (A). The basic func- tional component parts of society are social institutions such as family, education, religion, law, and the economy.
99. Which sociological perspective would study how educational institutions help to maintain the privilege of some groups, while keeping others in a lower position?(A) Conflict perspective (B) Functionalist perspective (C) Symbolic interactionist perspect 99. The correct answer is (A). The conflict perspective sees social groups as engaged in a continuous struggle for access to, and control of, scarce resources.
999. The symbolic interactionist approach views society as(A) the result of biological evolution (B) the result of class conflicts in society (C) being determined by social interaction andcommunication (D) complex systems, composed of specializedinterdepe 100. The correct answer is (C). To symbolic interactionists, society is created anew out of face-to-face social interactions between individuals.
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