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Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

REPRODUCTION: The process by which a single cell replicates into two (2) genetically identical daughter cells to replace a necrotic (dead) cell is called: mitosis
Replicates means: duplicates (copies)
Genetic material necessary for replication is contained in a cell's: nucleus
Replication means: duplication or copying.
Genetic material contained in a cell nucleus is found in groups called: chromosomes.
Chromosomes contain: genes
Genes contain: DNA which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid
Chromosomes are groups of: genes
Genes (DNA) contain hereditary instructions (blueprints) for cellular characteristics (descriptions) aka: genetic traits.
Hereditary means: familial
The number of chromosomes that cells normally replicate (duplicate) is: 46.
The 46 chromosomes in a cell nucleus contain: 23 maternal chromosomes and 23 paternal chromosomes.
The only 2 exceptions to cell replication (duplication) occur with: 1. The male sex cells called spermatozoa (sperm). 2. The female sex cells called ova aka eggs.
Spermatozoa (sperm) and ova (eggs) replication (duplication) is called: meiosis.
Each spermatozoon (individual sperm) normally contains: 23 chromosomes.
Each ovum (egg) normally contains: 23 chromosomes.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: The primary sex organs of male reproductive system are the paired male gonads called: testes aka testicles.
Oxygenated blood is transported to the testes via (through the: testicular arteries
Testes are testicles
Transported means carried
Deoxygenated blood is transported (carried) away from the testicles (tests) via (through) the testicular veins.
Testicles (testes) are the: primary sex organs of the male reproductive system
Physiologies (functions) of the testes include: spermtogenesis which means creation (production) of spermatozoa (sperm).
Spermatogenesis occurs in tubular structures located within each testicle (testis) called: seminiferous tubules.
Spermatogenesis means: creation (production) of spermatozoa (sperm).
Sperm consist of (contain) three (3) parts called: 1. The spermatic head. 2. The spermatic midpiece. 3. The spermatic flagellum (tail)
Sperm are aka: spermatozoa.
Each spermatic head normally contains 23 groups of genes called: chromosomes.
Genes contain: DNA
Each spermatic midpiece contains ATP for locomotion which means: movement aka motility.
ATP refers to: energy
Each spermatic flagellum: is a whip-like ail for locomotion through the female reproductive tract.
Tract means passageway.
Locomotion means: movement aka motility.
Developing spemaozoa (sperm) are stored in a: comma-shaped structure adjacent to each testicle (testis) called an epididymis.
Spermatozoa (sperm) are: male sex cells (23 chromosomes)
Adjacent means: next to
Each epididymis is a tube (duct) whose length is approximately: 20 feet long.
It takes the spermatozoa (sperm) approximately: 20 days to move through an epididymis.
Vessels (ducts) that transport (carry) spermatooa (sperm) from the epididymis to the urethra are called: vasa deferentia (vas deferens) or seminal ducts (seminal duct) or ductus deferentes (ductus deferens)
The physiology of the epididymides is to: store spermatozoa 9sperm)
The inability to reproduce is called: sterility or infertility.
Surgical removal (excision) of a section from both seminal ducts causing sterility (infertility) is called a: bilateral vasectiomy.
A bilateral vasectomy will not affect: 1. Secondary sexual characteristics. 2. Libido aka sex drive.
Each seminal duct, testicular artery and testicular vein is surrounded by a protective sheath called the: spermatic cord.
Sheath means: covering.
Vessels responsible for expulsion (ejection) ofspermatozoa (sperm) into the urethra are called: ejaculatory ducts.
Spermatozoa (sperm): are male sex cells.
Depending on health, the number of spermatozoa (sperm) ejaculated (expelled) can be: 40 million to 600 million.
Sermatozoa (sperm) are: male sex cells (23 chromosomes)
Because of the hostile vaginal environment, only thousands of spermatozoa (sperm) reach the: neck of the uterus called the cervix.
If the number of spermatooa (sperm) ejaculated (ejected) falls below 20 million, the male is considered: sterile aka infertile.
Once ejaculated (expelled) some spermatozoa (sperm) can live inside the female reproductive tract for up to: 5 days.
Large numbers of spematozoa (sperm) are required to fertilize an ovum (egg) because the ovum (egg) has a protective membrane (lining) that must be broken down by an enzyme secreted from the spermatic head of each: spermatozoa (individual sperm)
Enymes ae: chemical catalysts (cause reactions)
The liquid portion of the ejaculate is called the: semen aka seminal fluid.
The average volume (amount) of semen per ejaculate (ejection) is: 2.5-6mL or 1 teaspoon
Characteristics (descriptions) of seminal fluid (semen) include: 1. Milky in color and viscuous which means thick. 2 Sticky because it contains fructose (energy for the spermatozoa.
Characteristics of seminal fluid include an: 3. Alkaline pH (high pH) to neutralize the acidity (low pH) of vaginal secretions and urine.
Characteristics of seminal fluid include an: 4. Containing seminalplasmin which protects sperm by destroying bacteria in the female genital tract.
Characteristics of seminal fluid include an: 5. Containing an enzyme that activates the flagella (tails) of the sperm during ejaculation.
Characteristics of seminal fluid include an: 6. Containing prostaglandins that cause muscular contractions of the female genital (reproductive) tract.
Characteristics ae: descriptions.
Seminal (seminal fluid) is secreted by the: 1. Prostate. 2. Seminal vesicles. 3 Bulbourethral glands aka Cowper gland.
Secreted means: produced and discharged (released)
The prostate is he size of a walnut and surrounds: the proximal urethra just inferior to the urinary bladder.
Proximal means beginning
Inferior means: Below or under
Seminal vesicles are paired structures located: anterior to the rectum at the posterior base of the urinary bladder.
Anterior means; front
Posterior means back or behind.
Bulbourethral glands ae: paired glands located just inferior to the prostate.
Bulbuurethral glands are aka: Cowper glands
Physiologies (functions) of the testicles include: secretion (production and discharge) of the male sex hormone called testosterone aka androgen.
Testicles are otherwise known as: testes
Testicular cells that create (produce) testosterone are called: interstitial cells of Leydig.
Testosterone is otherwise known as: androgen
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 1. Development and maintenance of the male sex organs.
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 2. Descent (usually prenatal) of the testes (testicles) from the abdominopelvic cavity into the scrotum.
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 3. Broadening of the shoulders and narrowing of the hips during puberty (ages 13-19).
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 4. Protein build up in muscles producing muscular bulk and firmness in the physique.
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 5. Maturation (ripening) of spermatozoa (sperm).
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 6. Enlargement of the thyroid cartilage aka the Adam's apple.
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 7. Thickening of the vocal cords causing a deeper voice.
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 8. Influencing aggressive behavior.
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 9 Stimulation of hair growth on the face, body, and pubic region.
Physiologies (functions) of testosterone (androgen) include: 10. Stimulation of the sex drive otherwise known as the libido.
An outpouching of loose skin from the pelvic wall which supports and contains the testicles (testes) is called the: scrotum
Testicles (testes) are the: primary sex organs of the male reproductive system.
Internally the scrotum contains: two (2) sacs separated by a septum.
Septum means: wall.
Each sac contains a: testis (testicle)
The scrotum lies outside of the body because spermatozoa (sperm) and testosterone (androgen) production require: a temperature 3 degrees F lower than normal body temperature.
Depending on the temperature, the scrotum has the ability to: contract and relax.
The region (area) between the scrotum and anus is called the: perineum.
The scrotum is an outpouching of loose skin from the pelvic wall which supports and contains the: testes (testicles).
The male urethra is the vessel (duct) that transports (carries): urine or spermatozoa (sperm) and semen to the urethral meatus or urethral os or urethral orifice).
The length of the male urethra is approximately: 8 inches.
The male urethra is subdivided into the: 1. Prostatic urethra which is surrounded by the prostate.
The male urethra is subdivided into the: 2. Membranous urethra which runs from the prostatic urethra to the proximal portion of the penis.
The male urethra is subdivided into the: 3. Spongy or cavernous urethra which runs from the proximal portion of the penis and terminates at the urethral orifice.
The physiology (function) of the penis is to: deposit (put) spermatozoa (sperm) into the female genital (reproductive) tract.
Tract means: passageway.
The penis consists of an enlarged distal portion called: the glans penis.
Covering the glans penis is a section of loose skin called the: prepuce aka foreskin.
The glans penis is the: enlarged distal (end) portion (tip).
Internally the penis consists of (contains) three (3) cylindrical masses (collections) of spongy tissue containing: blood sinuses.
Sinus means: cavity (space).
Sexual stimulation causes: penile artery dilation allowing large quantities of blood to enter the blood sinuses.
Dilation means: increased diameter ( lumen).
Expansion (enlargement) of the filling blood sinuses (cavities): compress the veins that that remove blood from the penis called penile veins.
Compress means: constrict (squeeze).
More blood being delivered to the penis through the penile arteries and less blood leaving the penis through the penile veins causes: an erection.
The function of the penis is to: deposit spermatozoa (sperm) into the female genital (reproductive) tract.
Once sexual stimulation ceases (stops): the penile arteries will constrict.
Penile veins then expand and drain the blood from the blood sinuses (cavities) and the erection is lost.
Created by: bterrelonge
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