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A&P ch. 5, 6, 7, 8

integumentary system, bones, axial and app. skeleton, and joints

skin layers epidermis (superficial layer) dermis NOT TECHNICALLY A LAYER: Hypodermis or superficial fascia
epidermis top layer of skin made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 4-5 layers 4 cell types keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells, and langerhan's cells, function: protection
cell types in epidermis keratinocytes: melanocytes: Merkel Cells: Langerhans cells:
keratinocytes: mostly produce keratin (fibrous protein)
melanocytes produce melanin and makes up 10-25% of the cells in the lower epidermis
Merkel Cells touch receptors (tactile)
Langerhans cells macrophages that assist in cell immunity
layers of the epidermis top to bottom: stratum corneum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale
stratum corneum 20-30 rows of keratinized dead cells 3/4 of the thickness of the epidermis function: protection from abrasion, waterproofs, barrier against attack
Stratum Granulosum 3-5 layers of layers that get flattened Keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate
Stratum Lucidum (clear layer) ONLY FEET AND HANDS thick skin only (soles of feet and palms of hands) several layers of DEAD keratinized cells
Stratum Spinosum Abundant melanin granules in keratinocytes dendritic or Langerhan’s cells
Stratum Basale attached to the dermis one row of stem cells it takes 25-45 days for cells to go from basal layer to top of skin
dermis strong and flexible connective tissue two layers: reticular & papillary
papillary layer areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers Dermal papillae contain: Capillary loops Meissner’s corpuscles Free nerve endings
Reticular layer 80% thickness of the dermis contain collagen fibers and elastic fibers
skin markings friction ridges and cleavage lines
friction ridges Epidermal ridges that are on top of l deeper dermal papillary ridges (form friction ridges of fingerprints)
cleavage lines Collagen fibers arranged in bundles form cleavage (tension) lines
Incisions made parallel to cleavage lines heal more readily true
Sensory receptors in dermis Pacinian corpuscles Meissner corpuscles free nerve endings
Pacinian corpuscles stimulated by heavy pressure deep in dermis
Meissner corpuscles tactile sense to light touch (dermal papillae)
Free Nerve endings respond to temperature (in basal layer of epidermis)
Hypodermis subcutaneous layer below skin composed of adipose tissue and areolar connective tissue
Skin color pigments Melanin Carotene Hemoglobin
Melanin Produced in melanocytes; migrates to keratinocytes where it forms “pigment shields” for nuclei Freckles and pigmented moles: Local accumulations of melanin
Carotene Yellow to orange, most obvious in the palms and soles
Hemoglobin Responsible for the pinkish hue of skin
Appendages of the skin Sweat glands Oil glands Hairs and hair follicles Nails
Sweat gland types Eccrine Apocrine
Eccrine sweat glands Abundant on palms, soles, forehead and all over the body Sweat: 99% water, NaCl, vitamin C, antibodies, metabolic wastes Ducts connect to pores Function in thermoregulation
Apocrine sweat glands Confined to axillary and anogenital areas Sweat: fatty substances and proteins Ducts connect to hair follicles puberty onward (as sexual scent glands?) Does not participate in thermoregulation
Specialized apocrine glands Ceruminous glands—in external ear canal; secrete cerumen Mammary glands
Sebaceous (oil) glands Widely distributed Most develop from hair follicles Become active at puberty
Sebum Oily holocrine secretion Bactericidal Softens hair and skin
Functions of hair Maintain warmth Alerting the body to presence of insects on the skin Guards scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight
Hair distribution over the entire body except for palms, soles, and lips
Hair Follicle parts shaft hair root bulb
hair follicle wall 2 layers outer connective tissue root sheath inner epithelial root sheath
hair follicle location from epidermal surface to dermis
Arrector pilli smooth muscle attached to follicle causes goose bumps
Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus) Sensory nerve endings around each hair bulb Stimulated by bending a hair
Types of hair Vellus Terminal
Vellus pale, fine body hair of children and adult females
Terminal coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions (and face and neck of males)
Functions of Integumentary System Protection (3 types) Body temp regulation cutaneous sensations metabolic function blood reservoir excretion
Function: Protection Three types: Chemical Physical/mechanical barriers Biological barriers
Protection: chemical barrier Low pH secretions (acid mantle) and defensins retard bacterial activity
Protection: physical barrier Keratin and glycolipids block most water and water- soluble substances
Protection: biological barrier Dendritic cells, macrophages, and DNA
Function: Body Temp ~500 ml/day of routine insensible perspiration (at normal body temp) At high temps, dilation of dermal vessels and increased sweat gland activity (sensible perspirations) cool the body
Function: Cutaneous sensations Temperature, touch, and pain
Function: Metabolic functions Synthesis of vitamin D precursor and collagenase
Function: blood reservoir up to 5% of body’s blood volume
Function: excretion nitrogenous wastes and salt in sweat
Skin cancer types Basal cell carcinoma (least malignant, most common) Squamous cell carcinoma (second most common) Melanoma (most dangerous)
Basal cell carcinoma Stratum basale cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis Cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases
Squamous cell carcinoma Involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum Most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands Good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically
Melanoma Involves melanocytes Highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy
Burns damage: tissue damage, denatured protein, cell death) Immediate threat: Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, leading to renal shutdown and circulatory shock
Rule of Nines Used to estimate the volume of fluid loss from burns head and neck: 9% upper limbs: 18% trunk: 36% lower limbs: 36% perineum: 1%
Partial Thickness Burns First degree Second degree
First Degree burn Epidermal damage only Localized redness, edema (swelling), and pain
Second degree burn Epidermal and upper dermal damage Blisters appear
Full Thickness Burn (3rd degree) Entire thickness of skin damaged Gray-white, cherry red, or black No initial edema or pain (nerve endings destroyed) Skin grafting usually necessary
skeletal cartilage Has no blood vessels 3 types: hyaline fibrocartilage elastic
types of bone growth oppositional interstitial
interstitial growth bones to grow in length
oppositional growth bones grow in thickness (width)
axial skeleton bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
appendicular skeleton bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip
long bones longer than they are wide (humerus, tibia, etc)
short bones Cube-shaped bones (in wrist and ankle) Sesamoid bones (within tendons, e.g., patella)
Flat bones Thin, flat, slightly curved
irregular bones Complicated shapes
Functions of bones Support – Protection – Movement – Mineral storage – Blood cell formation Triglyceride
Function: Support form the framework that supports the body and cradles soft organs
Function: Protection provide a protective case for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs
Function: Movement provide levers for muscles
Function: Mineral storage reservoir for minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus
Function: Blood cell formation hematopoiesis occurs within the marrow cavities of bones
Function: Energy storage Triglyceride (energy) storage in bone cavities
Bone textures Compact bone Spongy bone
Compact bone Dense outer layer Made of osteons
Spongy (cancellous) bone Made of honeycomb of trabeculae
Structure of a long bone Diaphasis Medullary Cavity Epiphysis
Diaphasis shaft of bone Compact bone collar surrounds medullary (marrow) cavity
Medullary Cavity in adults contains fat (yellow marrow)
Epiphyses Expanded ends Spongy bone interior Epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate) Articular (hyaline) cartilage on joint surfaces
Membranes of bones Peristeum Endosteum
Endosteum Delicate membrane on internal surfaces of bone Also contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Peristeum Outer: fibrous layer Inner: osteogenic layer Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Osteogenic cells (stem cells) Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels enter the bone via nutrient foramina Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers
diploe spongy bone in flat bones
Structure of Short, Irregular, and Flat Bones Periosteum-covered compact bone on the outside Endosteum-covered spongy bone within Bone marrow between the trabeculae Have no diaphysis or epiphyses
Location of Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow) Adults: red marrow cavities Trabecular cavities of the heads of the femur and humerus Trabecular cavities of the diploë of flat bones Infants: red marrow Medullary cavities All spaces in spongy bone
Osteoblasts bone forming cells
Osteoclasts break down bone
Osteocytes mature bone cells
Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells Stem cells in periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts
Haversian system, or osteon structural unit of compact bone
Lamellae Weight-bearing Column-like matrix tubes
Chondrocytes Are in between the lamella
Lacunae small cavities that contain osteocytes
types of canals in compact bone Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals Central (Haversian) canal Canaliculi
Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals At right angles to the central canal Connects blood vessels and nerves of the periosteum and central canal
Central (Haversian) canal Contains blood vessels and nerves
Canaliculi hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
Trabeculae spongy bone align along lines of stress no osteons capillaries in endosteum supply nutrients Contain irregularly arranged lamellae, osteocytes, and canaliculi
Chemical Composition of Bone: Organic osteoblasts osteoclasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, osteoid
Osteoid organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts Ground substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins) Collagen fibers Provide tensile strength and flexibility
Chemical Composition of Bone: Inorganic Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts)
Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts) 65% of bone by mass Mainly calcium phosphate crystals Responsible for hardness and resistance to compression
Osteogenesis bone tissue formation
Stages of osteogenesis Bone formation—begins in the 2nd month of development Postnatal bone growth—until early adulthood Bone remodeling and repair—lifelong
Types of Ossification Intramembranous ossification Endochondral ossification
Intramembranous ossification Membrane bone develops from fibrous membrane Forms flat bones, e.g. clavicles and cranial bones
Endochondral ossification Cartilage (endochondral) bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage Forms most of the rest of the skeleton Uses hyaline cartilage models Requires breakdown of hyaline cartilage prior to ossification
postnatal bone growth interstitial oppositional
Growth in length of long bones 4 zones: Proliferation (growth) Hypertrophic Calcification Ossification (osteogenic)
Growth Hormone stimulates epiphyseal plate activity
Thyroid Hormone modulates activity of growth hormone
Testosterone and estrogens (at puberty) Promote adolescent growth spurts End growth by inducing epiphyseal plate closure
Bone Deposit occurs where a bone is damaged which provides extra support person needs to have a healthy diet
Bone Reabsorption osteoclasts secrete Lysosomal enzymes (digest organic matrix) Acids (convert calcium salts into soluble forms)
Hormones in bone (BONE GROWTH) children: growth and thyroid hormone adults: estrogen or testosterone
Hormones for calcium homeostasis when blood Ca is low: PTH increases activity of osteoclasts When blood calcium is high: Calcitonin increases activity of osteoblasts
Osteoporosis loss of bone mass osteoclasts outpace osteoblasts
Osteomalacia calcium salts not deposited which causes vitamin d deficiency
Rickets childhood disease that causes bowed legs
Wolff's law A bone grows or remodels in response to forces or demands placed upon ex. if right handed: bones of right hand are stronger than the left hand area where bone curves is thickest
Why is calcium necessary? Transmission of nerve impulses Muscle contraction Blood coagulation Secretion by glands and nerve cells Cell division
cranial bones frontal, pariteal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid
temporal bones projections Zygomatic process Mastoid process Styloid process
temporal bones openings External auditory/acoustic meatus  where ear is Jugular foramen Carotid canal
mandibular fossa Mandibular fossa – - Articulation: mandibular fossa articulates with the mandibular condyle of the mandible
occipital bone contains: foramen magnum: for spinal cord occipital condyles external occipital protruberance hypoglossal canal
Sphenoid bone Optic canal/foramen – between the 2 wings R - foramen rotundum O – foramen ovale S – foramen spinosum
Ethmoid bone upper part of nasal septum – vertical plate
Sutures joints between cranial bones
Corona suture between frontal and parietal
sagittal suture between parietal bones
Squamous suture between temporal and parietal
lambdoid suture between occipital and parie
Facial bones Mandible Maxillae Palatine Zygomatic Nasal Lacrimal Vomer Inferior nasal concha
Mandible lower jaw body ramus mandibular condyles – posterior projection of the ramus articulation: mandibular condyle articulates with mandibular fossa of the temporal bones coronoid process – anterior projection of the ram
nasal bone forms the bridge of the nose
lacrimal bone has a depression of the nasolacrimal duct
vomer has a depression of the nasolacrimal duct
inferior concha plates of bone in the nasal cavity
zygomatic bone cheek bone forms the zygomatic arch with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
hard palate anteriorly – maxilla posteriorly – palatine bone
nasal septum superior part – ethmoid bone inferior part – septal cartilage
fetal skull Fontanels – spaces between cranial bones anterior fontanel – closes after 11/2 years posterior fontanel – closes at birth
Paranasal sinuses Paranasal sinuses: mucus membrane lined air filled cavities of the bones maxillary sinus frontal sinus ethmoid sinus sphenoid sinus
Parts of the vertebal column Cervical vertebrae – 7 Thoracic vertebrae – 12 Lumbar vertebrae – 5 Sacrum -1 Coccyx – 1
vertebral curvatures Cervical and lumbar Thoracic and sacral
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature
kyphosis exaggerated thoracic curvature (hunchback)
Lordosis exaggerated lumbar curvature
Intervertebral discs between the vertebrae, made with fibrocartilage
Intervertebral foramen/mina holes between the vertebra laterally. The spinal nerves emerge from it/them
cervical vertebrae Special features of all cervical vertebrae: transverse foramen – on all cervical vertebrae Spinous process - bifid or divided and short – except C1, and C7 Small vertebrae
atlas: C1 No body No spinous process Transverse foramen present Superior articular process – large Articulation: superior articular process articulates with the occipital condyle of the skull
Axis: C2 body transverse foramen present
C3-C7 Body small Spinous process bifid except C7 Transverse foramen C7 – vertebra prominence - spinous process is long – looks like in thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae (5) large vertebrae spinous process – short and thick, like a hatchet
Sacrum forms posterior wall of the pelvis sacral foramina ala – laterally articulation: ala articulates with the auricular surfaces of hip bone (illium)
Coccyx tail bone
Thoracic cage thoracic vertebra sternum ribs and the costal cartilages
Sternum manubrium – superior part articulation: manubrium articulates with the clavicle and 1st and 2nd ribs Body articulation: body articulates with costal cartilages xiphoid process
ribs all attach posteriorly to  vertebrae all attach anteriorly through costal cartilages to the sternum directly or indirectly
ribs 1-7 (true ribs) Ribs 1-7- true ribs – attach directly to sternum through costal cartilages
ribs 8-12 (false ribs) attach indirectly to sternum by joining costal cartilage of the rib above
ribs 11-12 (floating ribs) no anterior attachment to the sternum
Parts of a rib Head Articulation: head of the rib articulates with the demi facets on the vertebral body Neck Tubercle Articulation: tubercle of the rib articulates with the facet on transverse process
Appendicular Pectoral girdle upper limb bones pelvic girdle lower limbs
Pectoral girdle: Clavicle and scapula
upper limb bones Arm, forearm, wrist, hand, fingers
pelvic girdle Hip bones (2)
lower limbs bones thigh, leg, ankle, foot, toes
clavicle sternal end Articulations: Sternal end or medial end articulates with  sternum acromial end Articulations: Acromial end or lateral end articulates with  acromial process of scapula
Scapula boarders  superior, lateral and medial anterior surface: Corocoid process Subscapular fossa
Humerus arm bone Superior end: Head of humerus – Articulation – head with the glenoid fossa of the scapula Neck
Humerus: Coronoid fossa medial, on the anterior surface of humerus, above the trochlear Articulation: coronoid fossa articulates with the coronoid process of ulna when the elbow is flexed
Humerus: Radial fossa lateral, on the anterior surface of humerus, above the capitulum articulation: radial fossa articulates with the radial head when the elbow is flexed
Humerus: Olecranon fossa on the posterior surface of humerus articulation: olecranon fossa articulates with the olecranon process of the ulna when the elbow is extended
Carpal bones 8
Metacarpals 5
Phalanges 14 2 in thumb 3 in each digit
Pelvic girdle Hip bones: 3 Ileum (hands of hips) Ischium (sit on) Pubic (in the front)
true pelvis below pelvic brim
Femur: Distal end: Medial condyle medially Articulation: medial condyle articulates with the medical condyle of tibia
articulation site where two bones meet
functions of articulations Give the skeleton mobility Hold the skeleton together
Three functional classifications: Synarthroses Amphiarthroses Diarthroses
Diarthroses freely movable
Amphiarthroses slightly movable
Synarthrosis immovable
Three structural classifications Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial
Flexion bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint
extension reverse of flexion; joint angle is increased
abduction movement away from the midline
adduction movement toward the midline
circumduction movement describes a cone in space
plantar flexion extension of the foot (pointed toes)
dorsiflexion flexion of the foot (flat foot)
Inversion turn sole medially (sole inwards)
nonaxial slipping movements only
uniaxial movement in one plane
biaxial movement in two planes
multiaxial movement in or around all three planes
insertion attachment to the movable bone
origin attachment to the immovable bone
intracapsular deep to capsule; covered by synovial membrane
Created by: davisobr



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