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Psych development

ch 5 Development and aging of the body system

skeletal system individual structure, is living tissue
Ossification the natural process of bone formation
Ossification centers The site where bone begins to form
two types of ossification centers Primary and Secondary
The primary ossification centers in the midportion of the shafts of long bones, from the Center outward to form bone shafts
Active secondary ossification centers are found at the end of the bone shafts -indicated on X rays by a line that is a layer of cartilage cells -Also called a pressure epiphysis
when does almost all epiphyseal plates are close? by age 18-19
epiphyseal plates close at younger ages in girls or boys? girls 15.5 but boys at 18.1
Appositional bone growth (physical thickness) involves addition of new layers on previously formed layers so that a bone grows in girth
Osgood-Schlatter disease irritation of the traction epiphysis where the patellar tendon attaches to the shin bone below the knee
Imagine you are the parent of a youth boy who is the pitcher on his youth baseball team. He already practices once a week and plays weekly games. The coach wants him to join another 2nd team to get more pitching experience. Would you consent? Does it depend on what the kid wants? What’s a young boy? How much pitching during each game ?Overuse elbow joint, Right mechanics, Same motion each time , Motivation
Youth bones new bone is formed faster than older bone is resorbed, allowing for growth
Adulthood bones -bone formation begins to slow -loss of bone tissue from mid-20s at 1% of bone mass per year
Older adults have how much more inorganic material? 7x more
Why does bone loss with aging occur? -Related to changes in hormone levels, dietary deficiencies, and decreased exercise -Decreased levels of estrogen in post-menopausal women --> more likely to get Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a major bone mineral disorder characterized by a bone mineral density significantly below the average -higher in adult women - decreased estrogen levels
As the bone becomes Porous what happens? it increases the risk of fractures and complicates fracture repair
Avascular Necrosis complete bone death
What Strategies we can implement to minimize the bone loss in adulthood? -exercise -Diet
sarcomeres think lines, grooves, or dents on the muscle line
Sarcopenia lose muscle mass
Early Development of the Muscular System – Male During and after adolescence, muscle mass increases rapidly up to about age 17 (54% of body weight)
Early Development of the Muscular System - female Only add muscle mass until age 13 (45% of body weight)
Type 1 muscle fiber -slow twitch -endurance activities
Type 2 muscle fiber -fast twitch -intense short duration activities
Between the mid-20s and age 50 how much skeletal muscle is lost ? Only 10% is lost
what decreases accounting for the muscle loss? Both the number of fibers and the size of the fibers
where do boys gain fat? add more subcutaneous fat to their trunks than to their limbs
Where do girls gain fat? increased subcutaneous fat at both slides
What is the difference between the primary and secondary ossification centers? As it relates to the skeletal? -Bone development -Primary: Center --> more dense -Secondary: Ends points of long bones --> length
Ossification differ by sex? -Female growth rate is sooner -Males grow for longer & faster
What is appositional bone growth? Girth/thickness
Youth skeletal muscle New bone growth
Adults skeletal muscle Bone formation begins to slow & bone mass loss
Why does bone loss with aging occur Dietary deficiencies , Hormonal
How do muscle fibers grow? Hypertrophy (size) & Hyperplasia (# of cells)
Muscle growth occurs predominantly by what? hypertrophy @ birth
Why do we lose muscle mass as we age? Life style changes
Is the presence of adipose tissue bad? No
T/F A fat baby will become a fat child False, , but not until childhood years of age it becomes an indicator
Differences in how we put on fat tissue based off of sex. Trunk – similar between boys and girls Extremities – higher for girls than boys
Is the increase in fat weight with aging inevitable? No
Endocrine system This system chemically controls the various functions of cells, tissues, and organs through the secretion of hormones
Hormones are chemical substances secreted into body fluids by a gland
Growth Hormone -Stimulates Protein anabolism so that new tissue can be built -Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and influences growth in childhood and adolescence
Thyroid Hormones Secreted by the thyroid gland, located in the anterior neck region, and influence whole-body growth and skeletal growth
Gonadal Hormones Affect growth and sexual maturation (particularly during adolescence) by stimulating development of the secondary sex characteristics and the sex organs
Androgens also play a role in the adolescent growth spurt of muscle mass. Who is it more pronounced in? -Men secrete both testosterone and adrenal androgens (in men) -Women only produce the adrenal androgens
Insulin -Influences glucose metabolism which indirectly affects development -Produced in the pancreas
Gradual imbalance (cause of aging) theories suggests that over time the nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system gradually fail to function
thyroid function hypothyroidism = acceleration of aging systems; increased thyroid hormone levels = congestive heart failure risk
Gonadal hormone levels ↓ with age estrogen levels ↓ after menopause which can lead to osteoporosis
Diabetes incidence ↑s with age likely related to inability of body to use insulin
What can we do to counteract these hormonal effects of aging? hormonal replacement theory
Nervous system This system controls movement and speech and is the site of thinking, analysis, and memory
Neurons are the cells of the nervous system that receive and transmit information
neurons are in the final location by the sixth prenatal month, and then specialize
synapse is a connection between two neurons; it is made by the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters from an axon
Assume you have just found out you will be a new mother. What Sushi, tuna (mercury), raw meats, caffeine, deli meats, raw unpasteurized milk
The migration of neurons and the branching of their processes are susceptible to effects of environmental factors delivered via ... the fetal nourishment system
Nicotine ↑ risk of mental retardation
Alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome
At birth how heavy is the brain ? 25% of adult weight and this increases to 80% by 4 years of age
Glial cells support and nourish the neurons
Myelin insulating sheath around the axons
Does brain function declines with age due to loss of neurons, synapses? -Yes, these losses happen with age and likely contribute to changes in motor behavior. -But a lot of new research said the brain is quite plastic, adaptable and malleable
what can play a key role in minimizing the loss of neurons and synapses with aging? Regular vigorous Exercise
Created by: rmart11
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