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Test 7

the urinary system consists of 2 fist sized organs kidneys
the urinary system consists of 2 vessels ureters
the urinary system consists of a reservoir for urine urinary bladder
the urinary system consists of a vessel that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world urethra
the paired kidneys are located in the posterior abdominal cavity retroperitoneal region
retorperitoneal region flank
the right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney due to the large area occupied by the liver
kidney cells nephrons
blood vessels that transport oxygenated blood from the abdominal aorta to the kidneys right renal artery and left renal artery
blood vessels that transport deoxygenated blood from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava right renal vein and left renal vein
the amount of blood the kidneys filter every minute is approximately 1200 mL
the outer covering of each kidney is called renal capsule
the outer layer of each kidney renal cortex
the middle or inner layer of each kidney renal medulla
fibrious connective tissue that anchors all muscles and all organs is fascia
anchors binds
the fibrous connective tissue that anchors each kidney to surronding structures and the peritoneum renal fascia
filtering and removing N toxins from the blood nitrogenous waste
nitrogenous waste include urea
nitrogenous waste include uric acid
nitrogenous waste include CR - creatinine
nitrogenous waste include NH3 - ammonia
maintaining blood volume by conserving or eliminating salts electrolytes
electrolytes include Na- sodium
electrolytes include K- potassium
electrolytes include Cl-chloride
electrolytes include Ca - calcium
electrolytes include PO- phosphate
calcium and phosphate are mineral salts
electrolytes include Mg- magnesium
electrolytes include SO- sulfate
if your kidneys conserve electrolytes your body will conserve H2O water
excessive amounts of electrolytes in the blood especially sodium can cause the kidneys to keep excessive fluid fluid retention
RF renal failure
the american heart association RDA of sodium is less than 1500 milligrams
RDA recommended daily allowance
maintaining pH balance of the blood by the interaction of carbonic acid and bicarbonate
secretion of an enzyme to regulate BP renin
hormone erythpoietin which stimulates erythrocyte formation
conversion of vitamin D into its active form calcitrol
calcitrol is neccessary for absorption of calcium
ureters are vessels that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
each ureter connects to a kidney at a renal pelvis
ureters are vessels that transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
each renal pelvis consists of funnel shaped structures calices
urine is transported from each renal pelvis to the urinary bladder by wave like muscular contractions peristalsis
the opening of the urethra to the outside world urethral os
the opening of the urethra to the outside world uretheral orifice
the opening of the urethra to the outside world uretheral meatus
the length of the female urethra is approximately 1.5 inches
the female urethral meatus is locatedbetween the litoris and vaginal orfice
the length of the male urethra is approximately eight (8) inches
the male urethra transports urine
the male urethra transports spermatozoa
the male urethra transports semen
GU genitourinary system
the urinary bladder is hollow muscular organ located posterior to the interpubic joint of the pelvis pubic symphysis
the average capacity of the urinary bladder 700 - 800 mL
when the urine level reaches 7 - 13 ounces equivalent to 200 - 400 mL
process of evacuating the urinary bladder urination
process of evacuating the urinary bladder micturition
process of evacuating the urinary bladder voiding
PVR post- void residual
urine is the liquid waste secreted by the kidneys
the coloe of normal urine clear or yellow
normal urine should not contain antigens pathogens
UA urinalysis
urine is the liquid waste secreted by the kidneys
the normal hourly secretion of urine is 56 mL approximately 2 ounces
sphincters that control the flow of urine are internal urinary sphincter and external sphincter
the inability to control the urinary sphincters is enuresis or urinary incontinence
hematuria blood in the urine
hematuria is a sign of trauma or infection or neoplasm
pyuria pus in the urine
pyuria is a sign of infection
cteriuria bacteria in the urine
bacteriuria is a sign of urinary tract infection
glycosuria sugar in the urine
glycosuria is a sign of diabetes mellitus
ketonuria ketones in the urine
ketonuria is a byproduct of fat metabolism
ketonuria is a sign of iabetes mellites
albuminuria albumin in the urine
PIH pregnancy induced hypertension
PIH preeclampsia
PIH toxemia
CKD chronic kidney disease
oligura scanty urine
anuria no urine
dysuria difficult or painful urination
nocturia chronic night urination
polyuria excessive urine
an unusual sudden urge to void urinary urgency
an involuntary delay in inititating micturtion urinary hesitancy
an accumulation of urine in the urinary bladder due to the inability to urinate is urinary retention
OAB overactive blader or urge incontinence
BUN blood urea nitrogen
Cc creatine clearance
Cystatin C Cys C.
GFR glomerular filtration rate
IVP intravenous pyelogram
IVU intravenous urogram
renal failure occurs when the kidneys are unable to remove excessive nitrogenous waste and electrolytes
azotemia blood condition of excessive nitrogenous waste or uremia
artificial removal of excessive nitrogenous waste and electrolytes is called dialysis
HD hemodialysis
hemodialysis is commonly performed three times a week for about 4 hours per treatment
procrit or EPOGEN erythropoietin
CAPD continous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CAPD is commonly performed 4 times a day for about 30 minutes per treatment
Created by: Trixcy_S



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