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Exam 1 (Spring 19)

human anatomy 2019

QuestionAnswer
1) How many bones make-up the vertebral column prenatally? Postnatally? Prenatally- 33 before Postnatally- 26 after fused
What kind of plane divides the body or a structure into right and left parts? Sagittal plane or median plane
Which type of tissue forms ligaments of the skeleton? Why? Dense connective tissue: Ligaments made of DCT and connect bones to bones at joints.
What is the function of the simple squamous epithelium of the lungs? Simple squamous epithelial cells in the alveoli allow oxygen from the air to enter the blood in the capillaries of the lung.
4) What is the muscle of the trachea called? What kind of muscle tissue is it made of? Trachealis muscle: Smooth muscle and soft CT
What structure sits in the anterior mediastinum? Thymus gland
What is the most caudal portion of the sternum called? What is it made of? Xiphoid process: Cartilage
8) What are the unique traits of thoracic vertebrae? Transverse costal facets & S/I Costal facets (demifacets)
How many pairs of true ribs are there? What makes them true? 7 pairs: They are attached directly to the sternum
What kind of cartilage do we find in intervertebral discs? Why? Fibrocartilage:
What is the study of cells/tissues called? Histology
12) What structures are found at the caudal end of the chordae tendinae? Atrioventricular and tricuspid valves
Oxygen-poor blood enters which chamber of the heart? What vessels take it out of the heart? Right chamber: Left atrium
What type of epithelium lines the esophagus? Why? What is carried in its lumen? stratified squamous epithelium
What specific feature does the tubercle of the rib articulate with? The facet located on the transverse process of the same numbered vertebra.
16) The scapula’s spine is on which side of the bone? What is the process at the end of it called? Posterior side: Acromion process
What is the structural category for the glenohumeral joint? Functional? Shape? Ball and Socket joint: Function- slightly moveable joint
What nerve innervates the diaphragm? What is the diaphragm’s insertion? Phrenic nerves: Laterally, muscle fibers insert into ribs 6–12
What happens to the PRESSURE in the thoracic cavity when the diaphragm contracts? Moves downward and increases the space in your chest cavity
20) What type of vertebra has transverse foramina? What passes through them? Cervical vertebrae: Vertebral artery, vertebral veins and inferior cervical ganglion passes.
What is the lateral articulation of the sacrum? Hip bones
What is the function of mucus in the trachea? Esophagus? Trachea- Protect and stop foreign particles and chemicals entering the lungs Esophagus- as a lubricant for materials
What is the functional category of a gomphosis? Where are they found? Synarthrosis joint
24) Which type of glands use ducts to carry their product? Name one. Exocrine Glands: Sweat glands
What nerve innervates the external intercostal muscles? Internal intercostals? Where are they located? Intercostal nerves: Ribs
What muscle has its origin on the sternum, clavicle and costal cartilages? Pectoralis major
What nerve innervates the trapezius muscle? Accessory nerve
28) What muscle is the AGONIST of arm extension? Deltoid
Which curves of vertebral column are secondary? What is their function? Cervical and lumbar curves: Even distribution of weight
What removes pathogens from lymph? What vessel typically brings lymph back into cardiovascular circulation? The white blood cells: Subclavian vein
Name one function of the fibrous skeleton of the heart? Provide structure and support for the heart
32) Which set of valves regulate the flow of blood moving in the cranial direction? Semilunar valve
Where do T-lymphocytes mature and become immunocompetant? Thymus
What kind of tissue creates peristalsis in the esophagus? Smooth muscle tissue
Which part of a vertebra is structured for weight bearing? Where is its position? The body: Dorsal
36) In which body cavity do serous membranes compartmentalize? What is benefit? Abdominal & pelvic body cavities (abdominopelvic):
Complete this sentence: The esophagus is ____________________to the trachea. Dorsal
What kind of cartilage helps keep the respiratory airways open? hyaline cartilage
What cells destroy pathogens near the respiratory membrane? White blood cell (Alveolar macrophages)
40) What are the muscular ridges of the hearts’ atria called? Pectinate muscles
Which heart chamber has the thickest myocardium? Why? The myocardium is thickest in the left ventricle: Must create a lot of pressure to pump blood into the aorta
Name the 2 mechanisms that divert blood from lungs in fetal circulation? Where are they located? What are they called postnatally? Ductus arteriosus and Ductus venosus
What do we call the “shaft” of a long bone? What is the space inside it called? What does it contain? Diaphysis: contains bone marrow and adipose tissue
44) What structural category of joints has a cavity? What fills the space? What produces it? What does it do? Fibrous joints: fibrous CT holds the bones together and they therefore permit little or no movement.
What type of tissue contains fat cells? Where would we find this tissue? loose connective tissue: Hypodermis
What is located in the right ventricle of heart that is absent from left? Function? Pulmonary valve: pushing blood out of the heart and into the artery
What does “form follows function” mean? Example? posterior vs anterior teeth
48) What is the study of the body’s function called? Physiology
What muscle controls quiet respiration? What property returns it to its original position after contraction? External intercostal muscles and the diaphragm
What type of tissue contains matrix, cells and fibers? Loose connective tissue
Which type of connective tissue is considered “atypical”? Why? BLOOD: because it consists of blood cells surrounded by a nonliving fluid matrix called blood plasma.
Created by: Tony_V