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Med Term- Ch. 9

Ch. 9 corresponds with Medical Terminology Complete! (3rd ed.) by Bruce Wingerd.

alveol/o air sac, alveolus
bronch/o, bronch/i airway, bronchus
hem/o, hemat/o blood
laryng/o voice box, larynx
lob/o a rounded part, lobe
muc/o mucus
nas/o nose
ox/i oxygen
pharyng/o throat, pharynx
phragm/o, phragmat/o partition
pleur/o pleura, rib
pneum/o, pneumon/o air way, lung
pulmon/o lung
rhin/o nose
sept/o putrefying; wall, partition
sinus/o cavity
thorac/o chest, thorax
trache/o trachea, windpipe
respiratio "to breathe again"
respiratory system brings oxygen (process of inhalation to diffusion) into the bloodstream, through which it it transported to all body cells and it also removes the waste product, carbon dioxide (diffusion to inhalation), from the blood and channels it outside the body.
respiration the process of providing cells with oxygen
upper respiratory tract when you inhale, air flows into the lungs after traveling through a series of chambers and tubes. it includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx
lower respiratory tract consists of the trachea in the neck and chest, the bronchial tree, which branches extensively throughout the lungs, alveoli, and the lungs themselves.
alveoli tiny sacs within the lungs.
pulmonologist lung disease treated by a pulmonary specialist
ENT Specialist/ Otolaryngologist a disease of the pharynx is treated by them
oncologist specialist that treats cancer
eu- normal, good
epi- upon, over, above, on top
dys- bad, abnormal, painful, difficult
orth/o straight
-algia condition of pain
-capnia condition of carbon dioxide
-dynia condition of pain
-emia condition of blood
-oxia condition of oxygen
-phonia condition of sound or voice
-pnea breath
-ptysis to cough up
-rrhagia abnormal discharge
-spasm sudden involuntary muscle contraction
-staxis dripping
anoxia the absence of oxygen
aphonia the absence of voice
apnea a longer-than-normal pause between breaths
sleep apnea one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths occur while sleeping.
bradypnea an abnormal slowing of the breathing rhythm
bronchospasm a narrowing of the airway caused by the contraction of smooth muscles in the walls of the tiny tubes known as bronchioles within the lungs
Cheyne-Stokes respiration a repeated pattern of distressed breathing marked by a gradual increase of deep breathing, followed by shallow breathing and apnea. it is a sign of brain dysfunction or congestive heart failure.
dysphonia symptom of a hoarse voice "bad voice"
dyspnea a symptom of difficult breathing, usually caused by a respiratory disease or cardiac disorder.
eupnea a normal breathing rhythm
epistaxis "dripping upon." can be a sign of high blood pressure, a nasal sinus infection, inhalation of a toxic irritant or particle, or a blow to the face. also called rhinorrhagia, "abnormal discharge of the nose"
hemoptysis the symptom of coughing up and spitting up blood
hemothorax "chest blood." pooling of blood within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs.
hypercapnia excessive levels of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypocapnia carbon dioxide blood levels are deficient, or abnormally low
hyperpnea the sign of abnormally deep breathing or an abnormally high rate of breathing. common among patients suffering from the respiratory disease, emphysema. also a sign or heart failure.
hyperventilation the sign of abnormally rapid breathing is more common among patients experiencing anxiety (panic).
hypopnea abnormally shallow breathing
hypoventilation a reduced breathing rhythm that fails to meet the body gas exchange demands
hypoxemia abnormally low levels of oxygen in the blood is a sign of respiratory deficiency
hypoxia sign of abnormally low levels of oxygen throughout the body
laryngospasm the closure of the glottis, the opening into the larynx, due to muscular contractions of the throat.
orthopnea the limited ability to breathe when lying down and becomes relieved when sitting upright.
paroxysm a sudden onset of symptomatic sharp pain or a convulsion
paroxymos greek word "to sharpen or to irritate"
sputum an expectorated (coughed out from the lungs) matter
tachypnea rapid breathing
thoracalgia the symptom of pain in the chest region. also called thoracodynia.
a- without, absence of
atel/o incomplete
carcin/o cancer
coccidioid/o Coccidioides immitis (a fungus)
coni/o dust
cyst/o bladder, sac
embol/o plug
fibr/o fiber
glott/o opening into the windpipe
myc/o fungus
pharyng/o throat, pharynx
py/o pus
sphyx/o pulse
sten/o narrow
tonsill/o almond, tonsil
tubercul/o little swelling
-al pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-ectasis expansion, dilation
-genic pertaining to producing, forming
-ia condition of
-ic pertaining to
-ism condition or disease
-itis inflammation
-oma tumor
-osis condition of
asphyxia the absence of respiratory ventilation, or suffocation "condition of without pulse"
asthma a condition of the lungs that is characterized by widespread narrowing of the bronchioles and formation of mucous plugs. symptoms of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and frequent coughing during an episode.
astma greek word that means "to pant"
asthmatic bronchitis when asthma is complicated with bronchitis
atelectasis trauma or disease disables the protective mechanism of the alveoli in the lungs from normally retaining a small amount of air, so they collapse, preventing air from entering. known as a collapsed lung.
bronchiectasis a chronic, abnormal dilation (widening) of the bronchi. caused by a recurrent inflammation or infection of the airways, and is usually accompanied with an abundant, purulent sputum.
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
-oles tiny
bronchiolitis when the bronchioles undergo inflammation. caused by either infection or allergies
acute bronchitis associated with a respiratory tract infection
chronic bronchitis caused by smoking, although allergies can cause this condition.
bronchogenic carcinoma an aggressive form of cancer arising from cells within the bronchi. known as lung cancer and includes tow major types: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
bronchopneumonia an acute inflammation disease involving the bronchioles and the alveoli. caused by a bacterial infection that involves the bronchi and the soft tissue of the lungs, causing the alveoli to fill with fluid, leading to the loss of air space (lobar pneumonia)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a reduced flow of air to and from the alveoli in the lungs may be the result of chronic bronchitis or emphysema. it is a progressive disease that makes breathing very difficult and is primarily caused by by smoking tobacco products.
coccidioidomycosis a fungal infection of the upper respiratory tract, which often spreads to the lungs and other organs. also called valley fever.
coryza the common cold is caused by a virus that infects the upper respiratory tract, resulting in local inflammation. also called rhinitis.
koryza greek word for runny nose
croup a viral infectious disease that is relatively common among infants and young children produces a characteristic hoarse cough with. sound resembling the bark of a dog. also called laryngotracheobronchitis.
cystic fibrosis (CF) severe hereditary disease that is characterized by excess mucus production in the respiratory tract, digestive tract, and elsewhere. "condition of fibrous cysts (bladders)" causes difficulty breathing because of the dense mucus that obstructs the airways.
emphysema a chronic lug disease characterized by the symptoms of dyspnea, a chronic cough, formation of a barrel chest due to labored breathing, and a gradual deterioration caused by chronic hypoxemia and hypercapnia. caused by smoking, COPD, and chronic bronchitis
epiglottitis inflammation of the epiglottis. caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from the throat to the epiglottis and can be very serious in children due to danger of airway obstruction.
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx. characterized by the symptom of dysphonia
legionellosis a form of pneumonia that is caused by the bacterium Legionella Pnuemophilia is called Legionnaires' Disease.
nasopharyngitis inflammation of the nose and pharynx. caused by an allergic reaction or bacterial or viral infection
pertussis an acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the larynx., trachea, and bronchi that produces spasmodic coughing. known as whooping cough. preventable with childhood vaccine DTaP
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx. also known as a sore throat.
pleural effusion effusion refers to the leakage of fluid. fluid leaks into the pleural cavity. it usually occurs as a response by the body to injury or infection of the pleural membranes.
pleuritis inflammation of the pleural membranes. also called pleurisy.
pneumoconiosis inflammation of the lungs, when caused by the chronic inhalation of fine particles. "condition of dusty lungs" caused by mining and manufacturing activities. it leads to the formation of. a fibrotic tissue around alveoli, reducing air flow=no gas exchange
pneumonia inflammation of soft lung tissue (excluding the bronchi) that results in the formation of an exudate (fluid) within the alveoli. sometimes known as "drowning in your own fluids" caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogens
pneumonitis an inflammatory condition of the lungs that is independent of a particular cause. often associated with pulmonary edema, which is the accumulation of fluids within the lungs
pneumothorax the abnormal presence of air or gas within the pleural cavity. caused by a penetrating injury to the chest or severe coughing and leads to atelectasis.
pulmonary edema the accumulation of fluid within the lungs is a response to infection or injury. the most common cause is cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure and possibly ARDS. associated with pneumonia and pneumonitis.
pulmonary embolism (PE) a blockage in the pulmonary circulation by a blood clot. it is a complication to an injury or surgery elsewhere in the body.
pyothorax the presence of pus in the pleural cavity. also known as empyema.
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) a severe respiratory disease that is characterized by rapid respiratory failure. has two forms: neonatal and adult/ acute.
rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity.
severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) severe, rapid-onset viral infection resulting in respiratory distress that includes acute lung inflammation, alveolar damage, & atelectasis. caused by a virus & can become fatal. due to aggressive immunological response that injures alveoli & bronchioles.
sinusitis inflammation of the mucous membranes. it affects the nasal cavity & paranasal sinuses that are located within the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones of the skull. similar to rhinitis.
tonsillitis inflammation of one or more tonsils
tracheitis inflammation of the trachea. caused by a bacterial infection that ravels downward from the larynx
tracheostenosis inflammation leads to a narrowing of the trachea
tuberculosis (TB) infection of the lungs by the bacterium Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. "condition of a little swelling." a colony of bacteria within the soft tissue of the lungs that form a hard barrier, preventing white blood cells from entering and destroying the bacteria
upper respiratory infection (URI) a generalized infection of the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx)
pleuropneumonia a disease of inflammation of the pleural membranes and the lungs
asbestos form of pneumoconiosis which is caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers
silicosis form of pneumoconiosis which is caused by inhalation of fine silicone dust.
embolus a blood clot that moves along with the bloodstream, derived from greek word embolos "a plug"
embolism an embolus can become dangerous if it lodges in a blood vessel, causing an occlusion that blocks the flow of blood to form an embolism.
neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) it is caused by insufficient surfactant, a substance produced by alveolar cells that prevents atelectasis (lung collapse). occurs in premature infants because they have not yet developed the ability to produce surfactant
adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe lung infections or injury that result in damage to lung capillary walls and bronchioles, causing a rapid accumulation of purulent fluid into alveoli and bronchioles that places the patient in immediate danger of drowning in their fluids
acute rhinitis clinical term for a common cold
anti- against, opposite of
endo- within
aden/o gland
angi/o blood vessel
bronch/o airway, bronchus
dilat/o to widen
ot/o ear
spir/o breathe
-al pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-centesis surgical puncture
-ectomy surgical excision, removal
-gram a record or image
-graphy recording process
-ion process
-logist one who studies
-meter measure, measuring instrument
-metry measurement, process of measuring
-oid resembling
-plasty surgical repair
-scopy process of viewing
-stomy surgical creation of an opening
-tomy incision, to cut
acid-fast bacilli smear (AFB) a clinical test performed on sputum to identify he presence of bacteria hat react to acid. frequently used with chest x-rays to confirm a diagnosis of tuberculosis.
adenoidectomy the removal of an adenoid, which is a pharyngeal tonsil
antihistamine a therapeutic drug that inhibits the effects of histamines
histamines a compound released by certain cells in response to allergens. they cause bronchial constriction and blood vessel dilation.
arterial blood gases (ABGs) a clinical test on arterial blood to identify the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
aspiration a procedure that is the removal of fluid, air, or foreign bodies with suction to clear the airway of obstructions
aspiratus latin word "to breathe on"
auscutlation a procedure that involves listening to sounds within the body as part of a physical examination, often with the aid of a stethoscope.
ausculto latin word "to listen to"
bronchodilation a procedure that uses a bronchodilating agent to relax the smooth muscles of the airways in an effort to stop bronchial constriction, thereby allowing the patient to breathe easier.
bronchography the x-ray imaging of the bronchi
bronchogram the x-ray image of the bronchi and it uses a contrast medium to highlight the bronchial tree.
bronchoscopy the evaluation of the bronchi using a flexible fiber-optic tube mounted with a small lens at one end and attached to an eyepiece and computer monitor at the other end.
bronchoscope the instrument is a modified endoscope, which is inserted through the nose to observe the trachea and bronchi.
chest CT scan diagnostic imaging of the chest by a computed tomography (CT) instrument. the procedure is used to diagnose respiratory tumors, pleural effusion, pleuritis, and other diseases by providing 3-D images of the thoracic cavity.
chest x-ray (CXR) an x-ray image of the thoracic cavity that is used to diagnose tuberculosis, tumors, and other conditions of the lungs. also called chest radiography
CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) a device that is commonly used to regulate breathing during sleep as a treatment for sleep apnea. the CPAP machine includes a mask that fits over the mouth and nose, or just the nose, and gently blows air to encourage rhythmic breathing.
ears, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) a physician specializing in the treatment of upper respiratory tract disease
endotracheal insertion of a noncollapsible breathing tube into the trachea through the nose of mouth is called endotracheal intubation. it is performed to open the airway or, if the patient is comatose, to keep the airway open.
expectorant a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes the coughing reflex to expel th mucus
expectoro latin word "spit out of the chest"
incentive spirometry a valuable postoperative breathing therapy. it involves the use of a portable spirometer to promote deeper breathing to improve lung expansion after an operation. usually self-administered, helps to reduce pulmonary complications and correct atelectasis
inhaler a small handheld device containing a prescription medicine, that delivers a specific dosage of aerosolized medicine for inhalation to open the bronchial airways. self-administered response to asthma.
controller inhaler used regularly to help prevent asthma symptoms by controlling lung inflammation
rescue inhaler used to stop asthma symptoms once they have begun
laryngectomy surgical removal of the larynx. often required as a treatment for laryngeal cancer and is usually followed by training or insertion of a device to enable the patient to communicate orally. these patients have a permanent tracheostomy
laryngoscope a diagnostic procedure that uses a modified endoscope to visually examine the larynx.
laryngotracheotomy a surgical incision into the larynx and trachea is usually performed to provide a secondary opening for inspiration and expiration, allowing air to bypass the upper respiratory tract.
lobectomy surgical removal of a single lobe of a lung is sometimes required as a treatment for lung cancer, if the tumor is isolated in one lobe.
mechanical ventilation a medical treatment to provide supplemental oxygen to patients in respiratory distress. provides assisted breathing using a ventilator, which pushes air into the patients airway.
nebulizer a device used to convert a liquid medication to a mist and deliver it to the lungs with the aid of deep inhalation
nebula latin word "fog"
oximetry the procedure that measures oxygen levels in the blood using an instrument called an oximeter.
pulse oximeter a small, handheld oximeter that provides a digital readout of oxygen levels by noninvasive physical contact with a finger.
pleurocentesis (also known as thoracentesis) a diagnostics procedure that is the surgical puncture and aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity. after aspiration, the fluid is analyzed fro the presence of bacteria and white blood cells, the presence of which indicates pleuritis.
pneumonectomy surgical removal of a lung. it is performed as a radical treatment for lung cancer, in which tumors have progressed throughout the lung
pulmonary angiography a diagnostic procedure that evaluates the blood circulation of the lungs. x-ray images are taken of the lungs following the injection of a contrast medium into the pulmonary circulation. "recording of blood vessel pertains to the lung"
pulmonary function tests (PFTs) a series of diagnostic tests performed to determine the cause of lung disease by evaluating lung capacity through the use of spirometry.
spirometry breathing into a tube that is connected to an instrument. measures tidal volume and vital capacity.
tidal volume (TV) measures the amount of air inhaled and exhaled after a normal breathing cycle.
vital capacity (VC) the amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a forced expiration
pulmonologist a physician specializing in the treatment of diseases affecting the lower respiratory tract, particularly the lungs.
resuscitation (CPR) an emergency procedure that is used to rest breathing. uses chest compressions with the patient lying supine (on the back).
rhinoplasty the surgical repair of the nose
septoplasty deviation of the nasal spetum is corrected to improve breathing
TB skin test (also called PPD skin test and Mantoux skin test) a simple skin test to determine the presence of a tuberculosis infection. during the test a purified protein derivative sample of the TB bacillus is infected beneath the epidermis. a red skin lesion at the injection site days later indicates exposure.
thoracentesis surgical puncture using a needle and syringe into the thoracic cavity to aspirate pleural fluid for diagnosis or treatment. used to treat pleural effusion
thoracostomy surgical puncture into the chest cavity, usually for the insertion of a drainage or air tube. "placing a chest tube"
thoracotomy surgical incision into the chest wall.
tracheoplasty surgical repair of the trachea
tracheostomy surgical creation of an opening into the trachea, usually for the insertion of a breathing tube.
tracheotomy surgical incision into the trachea is a required of a tracheostomy. it is the surgical incision
ventilation-perfusion scanning (V/Q scan and lung scan) a diagnostic tool that uses nuclear medicine, or the use of radioactive material, to evaluate pulmonary function. it can identify pulmonary edema and pulmonary embolism.
Created by: lestercd