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Bone and Joint


Fibrillations DJD deep cleft
Eburnation DJD total loss of cartilage
Subchondral Cysts DJD destruction of bone beneath cartilage
Osteophytes DJD bony outgrowths that limit motion if they come in contact with one another
Pannus RA inflammatory synovium with proliferation that encroaches on the articular cartilage and erodes it
ankylosis RA when the joint space is obliterated and the bones fuse
main areas affected by DJD hip, knee, vertebra, hands
Main area affected by RA many tissue as it is a chronic systemic inflammation but mostly the joints
cartilage ECM is made of Type II and aggregans
how do you degeneration of the cartilage loss of aggregans greater than synth
ADAMST5 Protease that degrades Agglacans and erodes cartilage in response to cytokine stimulation
Gout monosodium nitrate
Pseudogout Calcium Phosphate dihydrate
Osteomalasia Defect in bone mineralization (Adults undermineralize Children - abnormal growth Rickets) usually nutritional or abnormal Vit D production
Osteoporosis Net rate of absorption exceeds rate of formation NORMAL MINERALIZATION degeneration of architecture
Osteopenia Decreased Bone Mass
Degenerative Disk Disease the annulus weakens and the nucleus pulpusus desiccates compressing the sciatica
when is annular fissure seen in up to 30% of normals
what determines the amout of osteoclastogenesis the amount of RANKL and Osteoprotegerin
RANKL Does? binds to RANK resulting in osteoclasts
Osteoprotegerin does ? also made by osteoblasts it binds RANKL and prevents it from binding to RANK
types of osteoporosis I II and Idiopathic
Type 1 osteo usually post menopausal women with loss of estrogen or testosterone more response and recruitment of osteoclasts and damage to the trabecular bone
Type II osteo normal with agin in men and women fewer osteoblast result in trabecular and cortical loss of bone
cordoroy vertebrae when you have advanced osteoporosis you lose horizontal trabeculae and the verticals thicken
wedging when the anterior portion of the vertebrae is lost more than the post can result in kyphosis
Bone densometry bone mineral density or bone mineral content per area
DXA dual X ray absorbitry to measure bone density
bisphosphatate stops osteoclasts by binding to a crystal
calcitonin reduced reabsorption of the bone
Padget's osteitis deformans - destruction of bone with formation of new bone forming mosaic pattern (resorption and formatino)
bones involved in Padgets pelvis, skull, femur, spine, tibia
what happens to the cortex in padget's disease thickened but not strengthened
Severe deformity in weight bearing bones that appears after 40 Padgets
Stages of Padgets Osteolytic, Osteoclastic/blastic, Osteosclerotic
symptoms of Padgets most are asymptomatic
Complications of Padgets 1) fractures, Hemodynamic changes, Sarcoma (more aggressive than normal) in 1%
what is Osteopetrosis defective Osteoclast
Osteonecrosis Infarct of the bone usually in the head of the femur that leads to subchondral fracture (collapse of the cartilage over it)
what does the body do with osteonecrosis tries to repair but never gets the contour right but can relieve symptoms
what is elevated with Padgets serum alkaline phasphatase
is padgets inherited yes
Osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and marrow usually pyogenic (s. aureus) and mycobacteria
what percent of Osteonecrosis is bilateral 40-80%
Complete fracture entire width of the bone
Closed fracture skin over bone is intact
Compound fracture Fractured bone pierces the skin
Comminuted broken bone in a number of pieces
Displaced two bone ends are separated from one another
Stress fracture Accumulation of stress induced microfractures that eventually result in a true one
Greenstick Fractures only one side breaks and the bone bends (in children with flexible bones)
compression fraction push into each other vertically
spiral fracture twists from skiing
Fibrous cortical defect NOT a neoplasm found in 20-50 percent of normal kids if it becomes large it can lead to fractures will go away by the time they are teenagers
most common skeletal malignancy metastasis
radiology of a malignant bone neoplasm benign - slcerotic rim of reactive bone around periphery Malignant fast growth with no layer of reactive bone and often destroys all the way through the cortex
treatment for bone cancer radiation and chemo most live more than 5 years
most common primary malignant neoplasm osteosarcomma
osteosarcoma most common in young men
cartilaginous tumor malignant - chondrosarcoma
Ewing's sarcomma common in the young almost all have translocation(11;22)
Ewig's sarcomma is also known as? primitive neuroectodermal tumor
Created by: jmuame03