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Med Term- Ch. 8

Ch. 8 corresponds with Medical Terminology Complete! (3rd ed.) by Bruce Wingerd.

TermDefinition
angi/o blood vessel
aort/o aorta
arter/o, arteri/o artery
cardi/o heart
coron/o crown or circle, heart
my/o, myos/o muscle
sector/o chest
valvul/o little valve
vas/o vessel
vascul/o little vessel
ven/o vein
ventricul/o little belly, ventricle
Functions of the cardiovascular system: Propulsion of blood by the heart, transport blood to all body tissues by the blood vessels, and exchange materials between the blood and body tissues.
cardiology study or science of the heart
cardiologist one who studies the heart
a- without, absence of
Brady- slow
dys- bad, abnormal, painful, difficult
tachy- rapid, fast
cyan/o blue
rhythm/o, rrhythm/o rhythm
sten/o narrow
-genic pertaining to producing, forming
sis- state of
angina pectoris the primary symptom of an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart is chest pain
angiospasm sign of blood vessel disorders that may include abnormal muscular contractions, or spams, of the smooth muscles forming the vessel walls.
angiostenosis narrowing of a blood vessel is a sign of cardiovascular disease.
arrhythmia a loss of the normal rhythm of the heart
dysrhythmia a heartbeat with an abnormal rhythm
bradycardia slow heart
cardiodynia condition of pain "chest pain"
cardiogenic a symptom that originates from a condition of the heart
cyanosis a symptom in which a blue tinge is seen in the skin and mucous membranes. it is caused by oxygen deficiency in tissues.
palpitations a symptom of pounding, racing, or skipping of the heartbeat
tachycardia a rapid heart rate
syncope a temporary loss of consciousness and posture. commonly known as fainting.
ather/o fatty plaque
isch/o hold back
phleb/o vein
scler/o hard
sept/o putrefying; wall, partition
tampon/o plug
varic/o dilated vein
atri/o atrium
aneurysm an abnormal bulging of an aerial wall. Caused by a congenital defect or an acquired weakness of the atrial wall, which worsens in time as blood pushes against it.
angiocarditis inflammation of the heart and blood vessels. Caused by a widespread bacterial infection of the blood, or septicemia.
angioma tumor raising from a blood vessel.
aortic insufficiency blood that returns to the left ventricle causing it to work harder. also known as aortic regurgitation
aortic stenosis narrowing of the aortic valve, located between the left ventricle and aorta. more serious than aortic insufficiency.
aortitis inflammation of the aorta
arteriopathy a general term for a disease of an artery.
arteriosclerosis when an artery wall becomes thickened and loses its elasticity, resulting in reduced blood flow to the tissues. "condition of hard artery"
atherosclerosis one or more fatty plaques form along the inner walls of arteries.
atrial septal defect an infants heart allows blood to move between the two atria because of a small opening in the wall separating them. As a result, the tissues of an infant will become starved of oxygen.
atriomegaly the atria have become abnormally enlarged or dilated reducing their ability to push blood into the ventricles.
atrioventricular block an injury to the atrioventricular node (AV node), which normally receives impulses from the sinoatrial node (SA node) and transmits them to the ventricles to stimulate ventricular contraction.
cardiac arrest (CSA) the cessation of heart activity
cardiac tamponade acute compression of the heart due to the accumulation of fluid within the pericardial cavity. "pertaining to heart plug process"
cardiomegaly the abnormal enlargement of the heart, which occurs when the heart must work harder than normal to meet the oxygen demands of body cells.
cardiomyopathy a general term for a disease of the myocardium of the heart. most common causes include coronary artery disease, viral infection, and stress during pregnancy.
cardiovalvulitis an inflammation of the valves of the heart. the most common causes are bacterial infection, which leads to the deposition of calcium deposits on heart valves, and congenital defects, which results in abnormally shaped valves.
coarctation a congenital (present at birth) heart disease affecting the infant's aorta. derived from the latin word coarcto, "to press together."
congestive heart failure (CHF) a chronic form of heart disease characterized by the failure of the left ventricle to pump enough blood to supply systemic tissues.
left ventricular failure the reduced function of the left ventricle characteristic of congestive heart failure makes the heart work harder; resulting in cardiomegaly, pulmonary congestion, and reduced left ventricle function that leads to cardiac arrest.
cor pulmonale a chronic enlargement of the right ventricle resulting from congestion of the pulmonary circulation. a French word that means "heart lung" and is also known as right ventricular failure
coronary artery disease a general term for a disease that afflicts the coronary arteries supplying the heart. the most common form of CAD is atherosclerosis.
coronary occlusion a blockage within a coronary artery, resulting in a reduced blood flow to an area of the heart muscle. the most common single cause is atherosclerosis.
embolism a blockage or occlusion that forms when a blood clot or other foreign particle (including air or fat) moves through the circulation. greek word embolisma "piece or patch"
endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium , the thin membrane lining the inside walls of the heart chambers and is an acute disease. often results in cardiovalvulitis. usually caused by a bacterial infection.
fibrillation a condition of uncoordinated, rapid contractions of the muscle forming the ventricles or atria. it is a severe form of arrhythmia.
atrial fibrillation (A-fib) leads to a reduction of blood expelled from the atria and is usually not fatal, although it poses an increased risk of stroke due to blood clots forming in the left atrium that may lodge in the brain.
ventricular fibrillation results in circulatory collapse due to the failure of the ventricles to expel blood. it is often fatal within five minutes if medical intervention through CPR or defibrillation is not immediately available.
heart block a block or delay of the normal electrical conduction of the heart. it is often the result of a myocardial infarction that damages the SA node or AV node.
heart murmur an abnormal sound heard during auscultation of the heart.
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) a leaky mitral valve (atrioventricular valve on the left side). common source of heart murmur.
hemorrhoids the presence of dilated, or varicose, veins in the anal region. produces symptoms of local pain and itching. they usually result from too much pressure on the veins in the anal wall, producing swollen veins within the anal columns or near the anal opening
hypertension an abnormal condition of persistently high blood pressure. means "process of abnormally high pressure". it produces no symptoms, and is one of the most common causes of stroke and kidney failure.
essential hypertension which the condition is not traceable to a single cause.
secondary hypertension which the high blood pressure is caused by the effects of another disease, such as atherosclerosis.
hypotension a condition of abnormally low blood pressure. it is an acute reaction to hemorrhage or septicemia.
ischemia and abnormally low flow of blood to the tissues
coronary ischemia caused by occlusion, such as atherosclerotic plaque, emboli, or thrombosis, and because its damages the heart, can lead to a life-threatening myocardial infarction.
myocardial infarction death of a portion of the myocardium. if Mi affects a large or functionally critical part of the heart, arrhythmia or cardiac arrest may occur or both. the common name for MI is a heart attack.
myocarditis an acute condition which is inflammation of the myocardium of the heart, often caused by bacterial infection, it is a form of cardiomyopathy.
patent ductus arteriosus a congenital condition permits the flow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta, which bypasses the pulmonary circulation.
infarction derived from the latin word infarctus, which means "stuff into"
pericarditis inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, the pericardium. it is usually caused by bacterial infection and affects both layers of the pericardium (pericardial sac and the epicardium)
phlebitis "inflammation of a vein"
thrombophlebitis the inflammation of the vein includes an obstruction by a blood clot.
polyarteritis a condition of simultaneous inflammation of many arteries
septicemia a bacterial infection of the bloodstream. it becomes widespread and life threatening quickly. "condition of putrefying blood".
sepsis greek word for "putrefying"
tetralogy of Fallot a severe congenital disease in which four defects associated with the heart are present at birth. as a result of it, the pulmonary circulation is partially bypassed.
the four defects of metrology of Fallot are: pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), ventricular septal defect, incorrect position of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
thrombosis the presence of stationary blood clots within one or more blood vessels. a coronary thrombosis is often caused by atherosclerosis, and its rupture can result in sudden death due to an acute myocardial infarction.
varicosis an abnormally dilated vein. it results when valves within a superficial vein of the leg or elsewhere fail, allowing blood to pool in response to gravitational forces.
ventricular septal defect (VSD) congenital disease in which an opening in the septum separating the right and left ventricles is present at birth. opening allows some blood flow from the left to right v., reducing blood flow to body organs while increasing blood flow to the lungs (bad)
hyper- excessive, abnormally high, above
hypo- deficient, below, abnormally, low
peri- around
endo- within
epi- upon, over, above, on top
-ac, -al, -ar, -ic, -ary pertaining to
-ade, -ion process
-emia condition of blood
-osis condition of
ech/o sound
electr/o electricity
embol/o plug
man/o thin, scanty
phleb/o vein
pulmon/o lung
son/o sound
sphygm/o pulse
thromb/o clot
valvul/o little valve
-ectomy surgical excision, removal
-gram a record or image
-graphy recording process
-lytic pertaining to loosen, dissolve
-meter measure, measuring instrument
-metry measurement, process of measuring
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhapy suturing
-scopy process of viewing
-stomy surgical creation of an opening
-tomy incision, to cut
angiography a diagnostic procedure that includes x-ray, photography, MRI, or CT scan images of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium.
angiogram the image resulting from angiography
cardiac/ coronary angiography when the procedure is focused on the heart
angioplasty the surgical repair of a blood vessel
balloon angioplasty a balloon is inserted into a blocked vessel and inflated to reopen the blocked vessels
laser angioplasty uses a laser bean to open a blocked artery
angioscopy the use of a flexible fiber-optic instrument, or endoscope, to observe a diseased blood vessel and to assess any lesions.
angioscope the endoscope is the modified instrument, which includes a camera at one end and a video monitor at the opposite end
angiostomy the surgical procedure that involves the creation of an opening into a blood vessel, usually for the insertion of a catheter.
angiotomy the surgical incision into a blood vessel
aortography a procedure that obtains an x-ray image, MRI, or CT scan image of the aorta.
aortogram an image of the aorta
arteriography a procedure that obtains an image of an artery
arteriogram the image of an artery
arteriotomy an incision into an artery.
arterioplasty surgical repair of an injured artery
arteriorrhaphy suturing the opening of the artery.
auscultation a part of the physical examination that involves listening to internal sounds using a stethoscope. certain sounds suggest abnormalities of heart function, especially arrhythmias and valve disorders.
cardiac catheterization insertion of a narrow flexible tube, called a catheter, through a narrow blood vessel leading into the heart. the procedure is done to withdraw blood from heart chambers, measure pressure, and inject contract medium for images.
greek word katheter "to send down"
cardiac pacemaker a battery-powered device that is implanted under the skin and wired to the inner wall of the heart to help control abnormal heart rhythms. it produces timed electric pulses that replace the function of SA node.
on-demand pacemaker the cardiac pacemaker has been improved to adjust to the patients physical activity and SA node function.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) an emergency procedure that is used to maintain some blood flow to vital organs until the heart can be restarted. it consists of rhythmic chest compression.
latin word resuscitatio "to revive"
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) a surgical procedure that involves removing a blood vessel from another part of the body and inserting it into the coronary circulation. the grafted vessel restores blood flow to an oxygen-deprived area of the heart by carrying around an occluded artery
stent an artificial, metallic scaffold that is used to support an injured blood vessel, compress an atherosclerotic plaque, or anchor a surgical implant or graft.
coronary stent may be implanted into a coronary artery that is occluded to restore blood flow to an oxygen-deprived part of the heart. may also be used to prevent closure of a coronary artery after angioplasty.
defibrillation an electrical charge is applied to the chest wall to stop the heart conduction system momentarily, then restart it with a more normal heart rhythm.
automated external defibrillator (AED) the electrical charge is applied to the skin of the chest with paddles
implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) a smaller device may be implanted under the skin with electrodes terminating directly on the heart.
Doppler sonograpghy an ultrasound that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel. it is performed on the heart to evaluate coronary circulation in a noninvasive manner and may also be used to monitor pulse rate from peripheral arteries
echocardiography an ultrasound procedure that directs sound waves through the heart to observe heart structures in an effort to evaluate heart function. also called ultrasonography.
echocardiogram the record or image of the data from the echocardiography
stress ECHO if a heart condition is suspected, it is often performed during and after exercise to reproduce the dysfunction for closer evaluation
electrocardiography electrodes are passed to the skin of the chest to detect and record the electrical events of the heart conduction system. used to evaluate heart function and to diagnose heart attacks and arrhythmias.
electrocardiogram (ECG) the record or image of the data from the electrocardiography
stress ECG when measured during physical activity using a treadmill or stationary bicycle
embolectomy the surgical removal of a floating blood clot, or embolus.
endarterectomy a surgical procedure for the removal of the inner lining of an artery to remove a fatty plaque. the most common surgical site for this procedure is the carotid artery in the neck, which is subject to developing atherosclerotic plaques.
Holter monitor a portable electrocardiograph may be worn by the patient to monitor electrical activity of the heart over 24 hour periods. useful in detecting periodic or transient cardiac abnormalities
nitroglycerin a drug that is commonly used as an emergency vasodilator as a treatment for severe angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. the vasodilation that results from this temporarily improves blood flow to heart and other organs
phlebectomy a procedure involving the surgical removal of a vein
phlebotomy a puncture into a vein to remove blood for sampling or donation.
venipunture a small punter is made rather than an incision when withdrawing blood
phlebotomist a healthcare professional who performs this procedure
positron emission tomography scan (PET) a noninvasive procedure that provides blood flow images using (PET) techniques combined with radioactive isotope labeling may be used to produce images of the heart to reveal functional defects.
sphygmomanometry a common procedure that measures arterial blood pressure.
sphygmomanometer a device which consists of an arm cuff and air pressure pump with a pressure gauge.
thrombolytic therapy treatments to dissolve unwanted blood clots are often necessary after surgery to prevent the development of emboli. also performed after a myocardial infarction to minimize damage to the heart. use of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator drugs
treadmill stress test if a heart condition is suspected, a cardiologist will often require the patient to undergo exercise during echocardiography or electrocardiography (or both) in an effort to examine heart function under stress.
valvuloplasty the surgical repair of a heart valve. if repair is not possible due to the extent of the damage or defect, valve replacement may be required using artificial valve or a pig valve
Created by: lestercd