Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

LYMPHATIC/IMMUNE SYS

Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

QuestionAnswer
The lymphatic system consists of a a liquid called lymph.
The lymphatic system consists of: Ducts which transport lymph called lymph vessels
Circulation (movement) of lymph through the lymph vessels is maintained by normal contractions of the skeletal muscles.
The lymphatic system consists of Lymph tissue located in the oropharynx and nasopharynx called tonsils
The oropharynx is the mouth and throat
The nasopharynx is the nose and throat
The lymphatic system consists of the largest mass of lymphatic tissue located in the mediastinum called the thymus gland
The mediastinum is the area between the sternum (breast bone) and vertebrae (back bones)
The lymphatic system consists of Lymphatic tissue located in the septa of the small intestine (small bowel) abbreviated PP which stands for Peyer's patches
Septa are walls
The lymphatic system consists of Red bone marrow aka myeloid tissue.
Myeloid tissue (red bone marrow) physiology includes hemopoiesis which means creation (formation) of blood cells.
The lymphatic system consists of bean-shaped lymph tissue located along the entire length of the lymph vessels (ducts) called lymph nodes.
Lymph vessels transport fluid called lymph
Three areas of lymph node concentration (collection) include: 1. Cervical lymph nodes located in the neck.
Lymph nodes are bean-shaped lymphatic tissue located along the entire length of the lymph vessels.
Edema of neck lymph nodes is called cervical lymphadenopathy
Edema means swelling
Three areas of lymph node concentration include 2. Axillary lymph nodes located in the armpits
Edema of armpit lymph nodes is called axillary lymphadenopathy.
Three areas of lymph node concentration include 3. Inguinal or iliac llymph nodes located in the groin.
Edema swelling of the groin lymph nodes is called inguinal lymphadenopathy.
Inguinal is aka iliac.
Physiologies of the lymphatic system include: 1. Transporting fats from the digestive system to the blood.
Physiologies of the lymphatic system include: 2. Producing leukocytes called lymphocytes
Leukocytes are white blood cells (WBCs)
Physiologies of the lymphatic system include: 3. Developing resistance to diseases called immunity.
Physiologies of the lymphatic system include: 4. Draining fluid that escapes (oozes) from the microscopic arteries and veins called capillaries.
Fluid that escapes (seeps) from capillaries is called interstitial fluid.
Interstitial means the spaces between the body cells.
The result of insufficient drainage of interstitial fluid is swelling called edema (edematous)
TONSILS Three groups of tonsils include 1. Palatine tonsils located in the tonsillar fossae (depressions) between the pharngopalatine and glossopalatine arches on either side of the posterior os (opening) of the oral cavity.
Three groups of tonsils include: 2. Pharyneal tonsils aka the adenoids.
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) are located adjacent (next) to the internal orifice (meatus) of the nasopharynx (nose and throat).
Three groups of tonsils include: 3. Lingual tonsils located on the posterior base of the tongue (lingua)
In these positions the palatine tonsils, pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) and inguinal tonsils form a protective ring against antigens that that might enter the oral cavity (mouth) or nasal cavity (nose).
SPLEEN The spleen is the largest mass (collection) of lymphatic tissue
The spleen is located in the left (L) hypochondriac region of the abdomen adjacent to the stomach
Physiologies of the spleen include filtering blood to phagocytize which means eat (swallow) a. Antigens aka pathogens (disease creators)
Physiologies of the spleen include filtering blood in order to phagocytize b. Worn out hrombocytes aka clot cells or platelets.
Physiologies of the spleen include filtering blood in order to phagocytize: c. Worn out erythrocyte aka red blood cells (RBCs)
Physiologies (functions) of the spleen include 2. -recycling Hgb from the worn out RBCs to be reused by newly formed erythrocytes.
Physiologies (functions) of the spleen include 3. Acting as a reservoir for blood
Physiologies (functions) of the spleen include 4. Producing leukocytes called lymphocytes which are white blood cells (WBCs)
PEYER'S PATCHES Peyer's patches resemble tonsils
Peyer's patches are located in the septa (walls) of the small intestine which includes the duodenum, jejunum and ileum
The physiology of Peyer's patches (PP) is to prevent antigens from infecting the septa (walls) of the small intestine aka small bowel
THYMUS The thymus gland is a bilobed mass of lymphatic tissue located between the sternum and vertebrae called the mediastinum
Bilobed means 2 sections
The thymus reaches maximum size during late adolescence (18-19) and decreases in size as we age.
The thymus is responsible for the maturation (ripening) of the T lymphocytes aka T cells
Functions of the CD8 T lymphocytes include: Destruction of body cells that have been invaded by viruses.
CD8 T lymphocytes are otherwise known as killer cells
Functions of the CD8T lymphocytes include Destruction of abnormal cells called cancer cells.
Functions of the CD4T lymphocytes include Helping the CD8 T lymphocytes
CD4 T lymphocytes are otherwise known as Helper cells
Functions of the CD4T lymphocytes include: Helping the lymphocytes that produce antibodies (immune proteins) called B lymphocytes (B cells)
Physiologies (functions) of the CD4 T lymphocytes include: Helping the activation of monocytes (phagocytic).
A CD4 T lymphocyte count that is less than 200 indicates (shows) the transition from HIV infection to AIDS which stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Transition means change
RED BONE MARROW Red bone marrow is otherwise known as myeloid tissue
The physiology of myeloid tissue is: Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis) which means formation (creation) of blood cells.
Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for Maturation of the lymphocytes that produce antibodies called B lymphocytes otherwise known as B cells
Maturation means ripening
Larger quantities (amounts) of red bone marrow are found in the 1. Sternum otherwise known as the breastbone.
Red bone marrow is otherwise known as myeloid tissue
Larger amounts of red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) are found in the: 2. Vertebrae otherwise known as the back bones or spinal column.
Quantities means amounts
Larger quantities of red bone marrow are found in the 3. Costae otherwise known as the ribs.
Larger quantities of red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) are found in the: 4. Ilia which form the superior portion (part) of the pelvis.
Larger quantities of red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) are found in the: 5. Proximal and distal portions (parts) of each superior (upper) arm bone called the humerus.
Proximal and distal means: beginning and end.
Larger quantities of red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) are found in the: 6. Each superior leg bone called the femur.
Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) consists of: undifferentiated cells called stem cells.
Stem cells replicate and form blood cells.
Replicate means copy (duplicate)
Some stem cells in the red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) become: erythrocytes other known as red blood cells (RBCs)
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells (undecided)
Some stem cells in the red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) become: thrombocytes other known as clot cells or platelets.
A count of the five different leukocytes is abbreviated: diff which stands for differential
Leukocytes are otherwise known as white blood cells or (WBCs)
The five types of leukocytes include: 1. Monocytes (phagocytes) 2. Neutrophils (phagocytes) 3. Eosinophils (allergies) 4. Lymphocytes (produce antibodies) 5. Basophils (release histamine and heparin to increase circulation.
IMMUNITY Immunity means protection
Immunity to antigens (disease creators) requires: B lymphocytes otherwise known as B cells
Some B lymphocytes (B cells) produce: antibodies.
Antibodies are: Immune proteins that tag antigens for destruction by the immune system.
Antigens are: disease creators.
Other B lymphocytes (B cells) become dormant but will respond with rapid antibody (immune protein) production during subsequent (future) exposures to: the same antigen.
Dormant means hibernating.
Dormant (hibernating) B lymphocytes (B cells) are called: memory B lymphocytes or memoy B cells.
Memory B lymphocytes or memory B cells are responsible for lasting immunity.
B lymphocytes (B cells) will produce: antibodies (immune proteins) when: 1. A person contracts an antigen which is a disease creator.
Contracts means acquires gets)
B lymphocytes (B cells) will produce antibodies when: 2. A person is exposed to an attenuated antigen which means crippled disease creator.
Antibodies are immune proteins.
Antibodies are specialized which means: they tag only a specific (particular) antigen.
The five different types of antibodies (immune proteins) are: 1. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) 2. Immunoglobulin M(IgM) 3. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) 4. Immunoglobulin D (IgD) 5. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
Physiologies (functions) of the five (5) major types of antibodies (immune proteins) include: 1. IgG (bacterial and viral infections) 2. IgM (protects blood and lymph) 3. IgA (protects mucous membranes) 4. IgD (protects abdomen and chest) 5. IgE (protects against all allergies)
Attenuated antigens and inactivated antigens are otherwise known as: vaccinations or immunizations or innoculations.
Vaccinations do not cause disease but stimulate (cause) the B lymphocytes (B cells) to create immune proteins called antibodies.
Vaccinations are otherwise known as: Immunizations or innoculations.
Antibody production sometimes requires multiple exposures to an: attenuated (crippled) antigen or inactivated (dead) antigen called booster immunization (vaccinations).
IMMUNIZATION MMR stands for: 1. Measles otherwise known as rubeola. 2. Mumps otherwise known as parotitis 3. Rubella otherwise known as German measles.
Brand (trade or product) names for the measles (rubeola), mumps (parotitis) and rubella (German measles) MMR vaccine include: Tresivac and Trimovax (three and vaccine)
DPT stands for: 1. Diphtheria 2. Pertussis 3. Tetanus
Pertussis is otherwise known as whooping cough.
Brand (trade or product) names for the diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccine include: DTaP ages 1-7 (Daptacel) and Tdap - booster (Adacel and Boostrix)
VZV stands for varicella zoster virus.
The varicella zoster virus (VZV) can cause: chickenpox
A brand (trade or product) name for the varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine is Varivax.
HAV stands for hepatitis A virus
A brand name for the hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine is Havrix
HBV stands for hepatitis B virus
Brand (trade or product) for the hepatitis B virus vaccine include: 1. Hepatovax and 2. Energix B and 3. Recombivax HB
MCV stands for meningococcal vaccine
The meningococcal vaccine (MCV) is a prophylaxis for: meningitis
Prophylaxis means prevention or protection
Brand (trade or product) names for the MCV include: 1. Menomune and 2. Menactra.
HPV stands for: human papilloma virus
The human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause: lesions on the genitals called genital warts and can increase the risk of cervical malignancies by 75%.
A brand (trade or product) name for the HPV vaccine is: Gardasil
Herpes zoster is also known as Shingles
A brand (trade or product) name for the herpes zoster vaccine is Zostavax.
RV stands for: rotavirus
The rotavirus (RV) can cause severe diarrhea (>10 diarrhea stools/day) in infants and children.
A brand (trade or product) name for the rotavirus (RV) vaccine is RotaTeq.
A blood test to determine the amount of specific (particular) immune protein present is called an antibody titer
An antibody titer will indicate exposure and/or immunity to an antigen (disease creator.
Created by: bterrelonge