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CH 9 Intro A & P

Mini Glossary

TermDefinition
alveolar capillary membrane gas-exchange structure that contains the alveoli and the capillaries surrounding the alveoli
alveoli air sacs in the lungs from which gas is exchanged with the capillaries
bronchioles the thin-walled branches of the bronchi; the smallest air-conducting passageways of the bronchi. The terminal bronchioles conduct a small amount of gas exchange in the respiratory zone.
cardiopulmonary system the collective name for the respiratory and cardiovascular systems; these systems work together to conduct gas exchange
conchae three uneven, scroll-like nasal bones that extend down through the nasal cavity
epiglottis a flap of cartilaginous tissue that covers the opening to the trachea; diverts food and liquids to the esophagus during swallowing
larnyx a triangular-shaped space inferior to the pharynx that is responsible for voice production; the voice box
mediastinum the area of the thoracic cavity between the lungs; houses the heart, great blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct, thymus gland, and other structures
nares the two openings in the nose through which air enters; nostrils
olfactory receptors sensory cells in the olfactory region that provide the sense of smell
palate the structure consisting of hard and soft components that separates the oral and nasal cavities; the roof of the mouth
pharynx the muscular passageway the extends from the nasal cavity to the mouth and connects to the esophagus; the throat
pleural sac the thin, double-walled serous membrane that surrounds the lungs
pores of Kohn small openings in the alveolar walls that allow gases and macrophages to travel between the alveoli
primary bronchi the two passageways that branch off the trachea and lead to the right and left lungs
sinuses the air-filled cavities that surround the nose
surfactant a phospholipid that reduces the surface tension in the alveoli and prevents them from collapsing
thyroid cartilage the largest
tonsils clusters of lymphatic tissue in the pharynx that function as the first line of defense against infection
trachea the air tube the extends from the larynx into the thorax, where it splits into the right and left bronchi; the windpipe
central chemoreceptor a chemical receptor cell that monitors changes in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid in an effort to regulate carbon dioxide levels and respiration
expiration the process by which air is expelled from the lungs; exhalation
expiratory reserve volume the additional amount of air that can be exhaled, or forced from the lungs, immediately after a normal exhalation
external respiration the process by which gas exchanged occurs between the alveoli in the lungs and the pulmonary blood
forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) the amount of air that a person can expire in one second
force expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) the overall expiratory power of the lungs
functional residual capacity (FRC) the amount of air that remain in the lungs after a normal expiration; ERV + RV
Hering-Breuer reflex an involuntary impulse triggered by stretch receptors in the bronchioles and alveoli that halts inspiration and initiates exhalation
inspiration the process by which air flows into the lungs; inhalation
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) the amount of air that can be inhaled immediately after a normal inhalation
internal respiration the process of gas exchange between the tissues and arterial blood
mechanoreceptors chemical receptor cells that detect muscle contraction and force generation during exercise; they quickly increase respiration rates when exercise begins
peripheral chemoreceptors sensory receptor cells located in the aortic arch and carotid arteries that are sensitive to changes in blood oxygen level
pulmonary ventilation the process of continuously moving air in and out of the lungs
residual volume (RV) the volume of air that never leaves the lungs, even after the most forceful expiration
respiration the process by which the lungs provide oxygen to body tissues and dispose of carbon dioxide; breathing
respiratory gas transport the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported to and from the lungs and tissues
tidal volume (TV) the amount of air inhaled in a normal breath
total lung capacity (TLC) a combination of the vital capacity plus the residual volume; IRV + TV + ERV + RV
vital capacity (VC) the total amount of air that can be forcibly expired from the lungs after a maximum inspiration
Created by: cwarsing