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Medical Definitions

Medical Terminology

Question Combining FormsAnswer
abdominal cavity Body pace between abdominal walls, above the pelvis, and below the diaphragm.
abdomin(o) abdomen
acetabul(o) cut-shaped hip socket
aden(o) gland
adip(o) fat
adren(o) adrenal glands
alveol(o) air sac, alveolus
angi(o) vessel
anterior At or toward the front(of the body).
aort(o) aorta
appendic(o) appendix
arteri(o) artery
arteriol(o) arteriole a tiny artery connecting to a capillary.
arthr(o) joint; articulation
aur(i), auricul(o) ear
blephar(o) eyelid
brachi(o) arm
blood system Body system that includes blood and all its component parts
bronch(o), bronchi bronchus
bucc(o) cheek
burs(o)_ bursa
calcane(o) heel bone
cardi(o) heart;esophageal opening of the stomach
cardiovascular system Body system that includes the heart and blood vessels; circulatory system.
carp(o) wrist bones
celi(o) abdomen
cell Smallest unit of a living structure
cephal(o) head
cerebell(o) cerebellum
cerebr(o) cerebellum
cervic(o) neck;cervix
cheil(o), chil(o) lip
chir(o) hand
chol(e), cholo bile
chondri(o), chondro cartilage
col(o), colon(o) colon
colp(o) vagina
connective tissue Fibrous substance that forms the body's supportive framework.
core(o) pupil
coronal plane Imaginary line that divides the body into anterior and posterior positions
cranial cavity Space in the head that contains the brain
cortic(o) cortex
costi, costo rib
crani(o) cranium
cross-sectional plane Imaginary line that insects the body horizontally.
cyst(i), cysto bladder; cyst
cyt(o) cell
dactyl(o) fingers,toes
deep Away from the surface (of the body).
dent(i), dento tooth
derm(o), derma,dermat(o) skin
diaphragm Muscle that divides the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
digestive system Body system that includes all organs of digestion and waste excretions, from the mouth to the anus.
distal Away from the point of attachment of the trunk.
dorsal At or toward the back of the body
dorsal cavity Main cavity on the back side of the body containing the cranial and spinal cavities.
duoden(o) duodenum
encephal(o) brain
endocrine system Body system that includes glands that secrete hormones to regulate certain body functions.
enter(o) intestines
epigastic region Area of the body immediately above the stomach.
episi(o) vulva
epithelial tissue Tissue that covers or lines the body or its parts.
frontal plane Imaginary line that divides that body into anterior and posterior positions.
gastr(o) stomach
gingiv(o) gum
gloss(o) tongue
gnath(o) jaw
gonad(o) sex glands
hem(a), hemat(o), hemo blood
hemic system Organs involved in the production of blood including the cellular and the molecular components essential in providing defenses against foreign organisms or substances.
hepat(o),hepatic(o) liver
hidr(o) sweat
histi(o), histo tissue
hypochondriac regions Left and right regions of the body just below the cartilage of the ribs and immediately above the abdomen.
hypogastric regions Areas of the body just below the umbilical region.
hyster(o) uterus, hysteria
ile(o) ileum
ili(o) ilium
iliac regions Left and right regions of the body near the upper portions of the hip bone.
inferior Below another body structure.
inguin(o) groin
inguinal regions Left and right regions of the body near the upper portion of the hip bone.
integumentary system Body system that includes skin, hair, and nails.
irid(o) iris
ischi(o) ischium
kary(o) nucleus
kerat(o) cornea
labi(o) lip
lamin(o) lamina
lapar(o) abdominal wall
laryng(o) larynx
lateral to the side
lateral plane Imaginary line that divides the body perpendicularly to the medial plane.
left lower quadrant (LLQ) Quadrant on the lower left anterior side of the patient's body.
left upper quadrant (LUQ) Quadrant on the upper left anterior side of the patient's body.
linguo tongue
lip(o) fat
lumbar region Left and right regions of the body near the waist on the dorsal (or posterior) side.
lymph(o) lymph
lymphatic and immune system Body system that includes the lymph, glands of the lymphatic system, lymphatic vessels, and the specific and nonspecific defenses of the immune system.
mast(o) breast
maxill(o) maxilla
medial At or near the middle (of the body)
medial plane Imaginary line that divides the body into equal left and right halves.
medull(o) medulla
mening(o) meninges
midsagittal plane See medial plane
muco mucus
muscle tissue Tissue that is able to contract and relax
musculoskeletal system Body system that includes muscles, bones, and cartilage.
my(o) muscle
myel(o) spinal cords; bone marrow
nephr(o) kidney
nervous system Body system that includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves and controls most body functions by sending and receiving messages.
nervous tissue Specialized tissue that forms nerve cells and is capable of transmitting messages.
neur, neuro nerve
oculo eye
odont(o) tooth
onych(o) nail
oo egg
oophor(o) ovary
ophthalm(o eye
opto, optico eye; sight
or(o) mouth
orchi(o),orchid(o) testis
organ Group of specialized tissue that performs a specific function.
osseo, ossi bone
ost(e),osteo bone
ot(o) ear
ovari(o) ovary
ovi, ovo egg; ova
ped(o), pedi food; child
pelvi(o), pelvo pelvic bone; hip
pelvic cavity Body space below the abdominal cavity that includes the reproductive organs.
pharyng(o) pharynx
phleb(o) vein
phren(o), phreni, phrenico mind; diaphragm
pil(o) hair
plasma, plasmo, plasmat(o) plasma
pleur(o), pleura rib; side; pleura
pneum(a), pneumat(o) lungs; air; breathing
pod(o) foot
posterior At or toward the back side (of the body)
proct(o) anus
prone Lying on the stomach with the face down.
proximal At or near the point of attachment of the trunk.
psych(o), psyche mind
pulmon(o) lung
pyel(o) renal pelvis
rachi(o) spine
rect(o) rectum
reni, reno kidney
reproductive system Either the male or female body system that controls reproduction
respiratory system Body system that includes the lings and airways and performs breathing.
rhin(o) nose
right lower quadrant (RLQ) Quadrant on the lower right anterior side of the patient's body
right upper quadrant (RUQ) Quadrant on the upper right anterior side of the patient's body.
sacr(o) sacrum
sagittal plane Imaginary line that divides the body into right and left portions.
sarco fleshy tissue; muscle
scler(o) sclera
sensory system Body system that includes the eyes and ears and those parts of other systems involved in the reactions of the five senses.
sial(o) salivary glands; saliva
sigmoid(o) sigmoid colon
somat(o) body
sperma,spermato,spermo semen;spermatozoa
spinal cavity Body space that contains the spinal cord.
splanchn(o), splanchni viscera
splen(o) spleen
spondyl(o) vertebra
stern(o) sternum
steth(o) chest
stom(a),stomat(o) mouth
superficial at or near the surface (of the body).
superior above another body structure
supine lying on the spine facing upward.
system Any group of organs and ancillary parts that work together to perform a major body function.
ten(o),tendin(o), tendo, tenon(o) tendon
test(o) testis
thorac(o), thoracico thorax, chest
thoracic cavity Body space above the abdominal cavity that contains the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels.
thym(o) thymus gland
thyr(o) thyroid gland
tissue Any group of cells that work together to perform a single function.
trache(o) trachea
trachel(o) neck
transverse plane Imaginary line that intersects the body horizontally.
trich(o), trichi hair
umbilical region Area of the body surrounding the umbilicus.
urinary system Body system that includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra and helps maintain homeostasis by removing fluid and dissolved waste.
varico varicosity
vas(o) blood vessel; duct
vasculo blood vessel
veni, veno vein
ventral at or toward the front (of the body)
ventral cavity Major cavity in the front of the body containing the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities.
ventricul(o) ventricle
vertebro vertebra
vesic(o) bladder
abscess Localized collection of pus and other exudate,usually accompanied by swelling and redness.
acne Inflammatory eruption of the skin, occurring in or near sebaceous glands on the face, neck, shoulder, or upper neck.
acne vulgaris See acne
actinic keratosis Overgrowth of horny skin that forms from overexposure to sunlight; sunburn.
adip(o) fatty
adipose Fatty; relating to fat
allograft Skin graft using donor skin from one person to another
albinism Rare, congenital condition causing either partial or total lack of pigmentation.
alopecia areata Loss of hair in patches, loss of hair in spots, baldness.
alpha-hydroxy acid Agent added to cosmetics to improve the skin's appearance.
anesthetic Agent that relieves pain by blocking nerve sensations
antibacterial Agent that kills or slows the growth of a bacteria.
antibiotic Agent that kills or slows the growth of microorganisms.
antifungal Agent that kills or slows the growth of fungi.
antihistamine Agent that controls allergic reactions by blocking the effectiveness of histamines in the body.
anti-inflammatory Agent that relieves the symptoms of inflammations.
antipruritic Agent that controls itching
antiseptic Agent that kills or slows the growth of microorganisms.
apocrine glands Glands that appear during and after puberty and secret sweat, as from the armpits.
astringent Agent that removes excess oils and impurities from the surface of skin.
autograft Skin graft using skin from one's own body
basal cell carcinoma Slow-growing cancer of the basal cells of teh epidermis, usually a result of sun damage.
biopsy Excision of tissue for microscopic examination.
birthmark Lesion (especially a hemangioma) visible at or soon after birth; nevus
blackhead See Comedo Open hair follicle filled with bacteria and sebum; common in acne; blackhead.
bulla(pl.bullae) Bubble-like blister on the surface of the skin.
burn Damage to the skin caused by exposure to heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation, or other skin irritants.
callus Mass of hard skin that forms as a cover over broken skin on certain areas of the body, especially the feet and hands.
candidiasis Yeast-like fungus on the skin, caused by Candida; characterized by pruritus, white exudate, peeling, and easy bleeding; examples are thrush and diaper rash.
carbuncle Infected area of the skin producing pus and usually accompanied by fever.
cauterize To apply heat to an area to cause coagulation and stop bleeding.
cellulitis Severe inflammation of the dermis and subcutaneous portions of the skin, usually caused by an infection that enters the skin through an opening as a wound; characterized by local heat, redness, pain, and swelling.
chemotherapy Treatment of cancer that uses chemicals to destroy malignant cells
chloasma Group of fairly large, pigmented facial patches, often associated with pregnancy
cicatrix Growth of fibrous tissue inside a wound that forms a scar; also, general term for scar.
cold sore Eruption around the mouth or lips; herpes simplex virus type 1.
collagen Major protein substance that is tough and flexible and that forms connective tissue in the body.
comedo Open hair follicle filled with bacteria and sebum; common in acne; blackhead.
corium See dermis Layer of skin beneath the epidermis containing blood vessels, nerves, and some glands
corn Growth of hard skin, usually on the toes.
corticosteroid Agent with anti-inflammatory properties.
crust Hard layer, especially one found by dried pus, as in a scab.
cryosurgery Surgery that removes tissue by freezing it with liquid nitrogen.
currettage Removal of tissue from an area, such as a wound, by scraping.
cuticle Thin band of epidermis that surrounds the edge of nails, except at the top.
cyst Abnormal sac containing fluid
debridement Removal of dead tissue from a wound.
decubitus ulcer Chronic ulcer on skin over bony parts that are under constant pressure.
depigmentation Loss of color of the skin
dermabrasion Removal of wrinkles, scars, tattoos, and other marks by scraping with brushes or emery papers
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
dermat(o) skin
diaphoresis Excretion of fluid by the sweat glands; sweating.
discord lupus erythematosus Mild form of lupus
ecchymosis (pl. ecchymoses) Purplish skin patch(bruise) caused by broken blood vessels beneath the surface.
eccrine glands sweat glands that occur all over the body, except where the apocrine glands occur.
eczema severe inflammatory condition of the skin, usually of unknown cause.
electrodesiccation Drying with electrical current.
emollient Agent that smooths or softens skin.
epidermis Outer portion of the skin containing several strata
erosion wearing away of the surface of the skin, especially that caused by friction.
exanthematous viral disease Viral disease that causes a rash on the skin.
excoriation Injury to the surface of the skin caused by a scratch, abrasion, or burn, usually accompanied by some oozing.
exocrine glands glands that secret through ducts toward the outside of the body
exudate Any fluid excreted out of tissue, especially fluid excreted out of an injury to the skin.
fever blister eruption around the mouth or lips; herpes simplex virus Type 1
first-degree burn least severe burn, causes injury to the surfaces of the skin without blistering.
fissure Deep slit in the skin.
fulguration destruction of tissue using electric sparks.
furuncle localized skin infection, usually in a hair follicle and containing pus; boil
gangrene Death of an area of skin, usually caused by loss of blood supply to the area.
genital herpes See herpes simplex virus Type 2 Herpes that recurs on the genitalia; can be easily transmitted from on person to another through sexual contact.
hair follicle tube-like sac in the epidermis out of which the hair shaft develops.
hair root portion of hair beneath the skin surface.
hair shaft portion of the hair visible above the skin surface.
herpes an inflammatory skin disease caused by viruses of the family Herpesviridae.
herpes simplex virus Type 1 Herpes that recurs on the lips and around the area of the mouth, usually during viral illnesses or states of stress.
herpes simplex virus Type 2 Herpes that recurs on the genitalia; can be easily transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact.
herpes zoster Painful herpes that affects nerve roots; shingles.
heterograft skin graft using donor skin from one species to another
hidr(o) sweat, sweat glands
hives See urticaria group of reddish wheals, usually accompanied by pruritus and often caused by an allergy.
homograft skin graft using donor skin from one person to another.
hypodermis Subcutaneous skin layer; layer below the dermis
ichthy(o) fish, scaly
impetigo a type of pyoderma
integument skin and all the elements that are contained within and arise from it
intradermal from within the skin, particularly from the dermis
Kaposi's sarcoma skin cancer associated with AIDS
keloid thick scarring of the skin that forms after an injury or surgery.
keratin hard, horny protein that forms nails and hair.
kerat(o) horny tissue
keratolytic Agent that aids in the removal of warts and corns.
keratosis lesion on the epidermis containing keratin
lesion wound, damage, or injury to the skin.
leukoderma absence of pigment in the skin or in an area of the skin
leukoplakia white patch of mucus membrane on the tongue or cheek
lip(o) fatty
lunula(pl. lunulae) half-moon shaped area at the base of the nail plate.
macule small, flat, noticeably colored spot on the skin.
malignant melanoma virulent skin cancer originating in the melanocytes, usually caused by overexposure to the sun.
Mantoux test test for tuberculosis in which a small dose of tuberculin in injected into the skin with a syringe.
melan(o) black, very dark
melanin pigment produced by melanocytes that determines skin, hair, and eye color.
melanocyte cell in the epidermis that produces melanin
Moh's surgery removal of thin layers of malignant tissue until nonmalignant tissues is found.
myc(o) fungus
nail thin layer of keratin that covers the distal portion of fingers and toes.
neoplasm abnormal tissue growth.
nevus(pl. nevi) birthmark
nodule small knob of tissue
onych(o) nail
onychia, onychitis inflammation of the nail
onychopathy disease of the nail.
papillary layer thin sublayer of the dermis containing small papillae (nipple-like masses).
papule small, solid elevation on the skin
parasiticide Agent that kills or slows the growth of parasites.
paronychia inflammation, with pus, of the fold surrounding the nail plate.
patch small area of skin differing in color from the surrounding area.
patch test test for allergic sensitivity in which a small dose of antigen is applied to the skin on a small piece of gauze
pediculated polyp polyp that projects upward from slender stalk.
pediculosis lice infestation
pemphigus autoimmune disease that causes skin blistering
petechia(pl. petechiae) tiny hemorrhages beneath the surface of the skin.
pil(o) hair
pilonidal cyst cyst containing hair, usually found at the lower end of the spinal cord.
plantar wart wart on the sole of the foot.
plaque see patch small area of skin differing in color from the surrounding area.
plastic surgery repair or reconstruction(as of the skin) by means of surgery.
polyp bulging mass of tissue that projects outward from the skin surface.
pore opening or hole, particularly in the skin.
pressure sore See decubitus ulcer. Chronic ulcer on skin over bony parts that are under constant pressure.
pruritus itching
psoriasis chronic skin condition accompanied by scaly lesions with extreme pruritus.
purpura skin condition with extensive hemorrhages underneath the skin covering a wide area.
pustule small elevation on the skin containing pus.
pyoderma any inflammation of the skin that produces pus.
radiation therapy treatment of cancer that uses ionizing radiation to destroy malignant cells.
reticular layer Bottom sublayer of the dermis containing reticula(network of structures with connective tissue between).
ringworm fungal infection; tinea
rosacea vascular disease that causes blotchy, red patches on the skin, particularly on the nose and cheeks.
roseola skin eruption small, rosy patches, usually caused by a virus.
rubella disease that causes a viral skin rash; German measles.
rubeola disease that causes a viral skin rash; measles.
scabies skin eruption caused by a mite burrowing into the skin.
scale small plate of hard skin that falls off.
Schick test test for diphtheria
scleroderma thickening of the skin caused by an increase in collagen formation.
scratch test test for allergic sensitivity in which a small amount of antigen is scratched onto the surface of the skin.
sebaceous cyst cyst containing yellow sebum.
sebaceous glands glands in the dermis that open to hair follicles and secrete sebum.
seb(o) sebum, sebaceous glands.
seborrhea overproduction of sebum by the sebaceous glands.
sebum oily substance, usually secreted into hair follicle.
second-degree burn moderately severe burn that affects the epidermis and dermis; usually involves blistering.
sessile polyp polyp that projects upward from a broad base.
shingles viral disease affecting peripheral nerves and caused by herpes zoster.
skin graft placement of fresh skin over a damaged area.
squamous cell carcinoma cancer of the squamous epithelium
squamous epithelium flat, scaly layer of cells that makes up the epidermis.
steat(o) fat
stratified squamous epithelium layers of epithelial cells that make up the strata of the epidermis.
stratum(pl. strata) layer of tissue, especially a layer of skin.
striae stretch marks made in the collagen fibers of the dermis layer.
subcutaneous layer bottom layer of the skin containing fatty tissue.
sweat glands coiled glands of the skin that secrete perspiration to regulate body temperature and excrete waste products.
systemic lupus erythematosus most severe form of lupus, involving internal organs.
third-degree burns most severe type of burns; involving complete destruction of an area of skin.
tine test test for tuberculosis in which a small dose of tuberculin is injected into a series of sites within a small space with a tine (instrument that punctures the surface of the skin).
tinea fungal infection; ringworm
topical anesthetic anesthetic applied to the surface of the skin.
trich(o) hair
tumor any mass of tissue; swelling
ulcer open lesion, usually with superficial loss of tissue.
ultraviolet light artificial sunlight used to treat some skin lesions.
urticaria group of reddish wheals, usually accompanied by pruritus and often caused by an allergy.
varicella contagious skin disease, usually occurring during childhood, often accompanied by the formation of pustules; chicken pox.
vascular lesion lesion in a blood vessel that shows through the skin.
verruca(pl. verrucae) flesh-colored growth, sometimes caused by a virus; wart.
vesicle small, raised sac on the skin containing fluid.
vitiligo condition in which white patches appear on otherwise normally pigmented skin.
wart See verruca flesh-colored growth, sometimes caused by virus; wart
wheal itchy patch of raised skin.
whitehead closed comedo that does not contain the dark bacteria present in blackheads.
xanth(o) yellow
xenograft See heterograft skin graft using donor skin from species to another.
xer(o) dry
bx biopsy
DLE Discoid Lupus Erythematosus
PPD Psoralen-ultraviolet a light therapy
SLE System Lupus Erythematosus
acetabul(o) acetabulum
acetabulum cup-shaped depression in the hip bone into which the top of the femur fits.
acromi(o) end point of the scapula
acromion part of the scapula that connects to the clavicle.
amphiarthroses cartilaginous joint having some movement at the union of two bones
amputation Cutting off of a limb or part of a limb.
analgesic to relieve pain aspirin acetaminophen (NSAIDS are also analgesics.) Agents that relieve pain.
ankle Hinged area between the lower leg bones and the bones of the foot.
ankyl(o) bent crooked
ankylosis Stiffing of a joint, especially as a result of disease.
anti-inflammatory Agent that reduces inflammation.
arthr(o) joint
arthaglgia Severe joint pain
arthritis Any of various conditions involving joint inflammation.
arthrocentesis removal of fluid from a joint with use of puncture needle.
arthrodesis Surgical fusion of a joint to stiffen it
arthography Radiography of a joint
arthroplasty Surgical replacement or repair of a joint.
arthroscopy Examination with an instrument that explores the interior of a joint.
articular cartilage cartilage joint
articulation point at which two bones join together to allow movement.
atlas First cervical vertebra
atrophy Wasting away of tissue, organs, and cells, usually as a result of disease or loss of blood supply.
axis second cervical vertebra.
bone Hard connective tissue that forms the skeleton of the body.
bone grafting Transplantation of bone from one site to another.
bone head Upper, rounded end of a bone.
bone phagocyte Bone cell that ingests dead bone and bone debris
bone scan radiographic or ultrasound image of a bone.
bony necrosis death of portions of bone.
brachi(o) arm
bunion an inflamed bursa at the foot joint, between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone.
bunionectomy removal of a bunion
burs(o) bursa
bursa sac lined with a synovail membrane that fills the spaces between tendons and joints.
bursectomy removal of a bursa
bursitis inflammation of bursa
calcane(o) heel
calcaneus heel bone
calcar another name for spur
calci(o) calcium
calcium Mineral important in the formation of bone.
cancellous bone Spongy bone with latticelike structure.
cardiac muscle Striated involuntary muscle of the heart.
carp(o) wrist
carpal tunnel syndrome pain and paraesthesia in the hand due to repetitive motion injury of the median nerve.
carpus, carpal bone wrist bone
cartilage flexible connective tissue found in joints, fetal skeleton, and the lining of various parts of the body.
cartilaginous disk Thin, circular mass of cartilage between the vertebrae of the spinal column.
casting forming of a cast in a mold; placing of fiberglass or plaster over a body part to prevent its movement.
cephal(o) head
cervic(o) neck
cervical vertebrae Seven vertebrae of the spinal column located in the neck.
chiropractor Health care professional who works to align the spinal column so as to treat certain ailments
chondr(o) cartilage
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
clavicle curved bone of the shoulder that joins to the scapula; collar bone.
closed fracture fracture with no open skin wound.
coccyx small bone consisting of four fused vertebrae at the end of the spinal column; tailbone
Colles' fracture fracture of lower end of the radius.
comminuted fracture fracture with shattered bones.
compact bone hard bone with tightly woven structure.
complex fracture fracture with part of the bone displaced.
compound fracture fracture with an open skin wound; open fracture.
compression fracture fracture of one or more vertebrae caused by compressing on the space between the vertebrae.
condyle(o) knob, knuckle
cost(o) rib
crani(o) skull
crest bony ridge
dactyl(o) fingers, toes
degenerative arthritis arthritis with erosion of the cartilage.
densitometer device that measures bone density using light and x-rays.
diaphysis long middle section of a long bone; shaft
diarthroses freely movable joints.
disk, disc(disk) thin, circular mass of cartilage between the vertebrae of the spinal column.
diskography radiographic image of intervertebral disk by injection of a contrast medium into the center of the disk.
dislocation movement of a joint out of its normal position as a result of an injury or sudden, strenuous movement.
dorsal vertebrae thoracic vertebrae
dystonia abnormal tone in the tissues
elbow joint between the upper arm and the forearm.
electromyogram a graphic image of muscular action using electrical currents
endosteum lining of the medullary cavity
epiphyseal plate cartilaginous tissue that is replaced during growth years, but eventually calcifies and disappears when growth stops.
epiphysitis inflammation of the epiphysis.
ethmoid bone irregular bone of the face attached to the sphenoid bone.
ethmoid sinuses sinuses on both sides of the nasal cavities between each eye and the sphenoid sinus.
exostosis abnormal bone growth capped with cartilage.
external fixation device device applied externally to hold a limb in place.
fasci(o) fascia
fascia sheet pf fibrous tissue that encloses muscles
femor(o) femur
femur long bone of the thigh.
fibr(o) fiber
fibula smallest long bone of the lower leg.
fissure deep furrow or slit.
flaccid without tone; relaxed
flat bone thin, flattened bones that cover certain areas, as of the skull.
fontanelle soft, membranous section on top of an infant's skull.
formen opening or perforation through a bone.
formen magnum opening in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.
fossa depression, as in a bone.
fracture a break, especially in a bone.
frontal bone large bone of the skull that forms the top of the head and forehead.
frontal sinuses sinuses above the eyes.
goniometer instrument that measures angles or range of motion in a joint.
gouty arthritis, gout inflammation of the joints, present in gout; usually caused by uric acid crystals.
greenstick fracture fracture with twisting or bending of the bone but no breaking; usually occurs in children.
hairline fracture fracture with no bone separation or fragmentation.
heel back, rounded portion of the foot.
herniated disk protrusion of an intervertebral disk into neural canal
humer(o) humerus
humerus long bone of the arm connecting to the scapula on top and the radius and ulna at the bottom.
hypertrophy abnormal increase as in muscle size.
hypotonia abnormally reduced muscle tension,
ilo(o) ilium
ilium wide portion of the hip bone.
impacted fracture fracture in which a fragment from on part of the fracture is driven into the tissue of another part.
imcomplete fracture fracture that does not go entirely through a bone.
insertion point at which muscles attach to a movable bone.
internal fixation device device, such as a pin, inserted in bone to hold it in place.
involuntary muscle muscles not movable at will.
irregular bones any of a group of bones with a special shape to fit into certain area of the skeleton, such as the skull.
ischi(o) ischium
ischium one of three fused bones that form the pelvic girdle.
joint place of joining between two or more bones.
kyph(o) hump, bent
kyphosis abnormal posterior spine curvature.
lacrimal bone thin, flat bone of the face.
lamin(o) lamina
lamina, (pl. laminae) thin, flat part of either side of the arch of a vertebra.
laminectomy removal of part of an invertebral disk.
leiomy(o) smooth muscle
leiomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle.
leiomyosarcoma malignant tumor of smooth muscle.
ligament sheet of fibrous tissue connecting and supporting bones; attaches bone to bone.
long bone any bone of the extremities with a shaft.
lordosis abnormal anterior spine curvature resulting in a sway back.
lumb(o) lumbar
lumbar vertebrae five vertebrae of the lower back.
malleolus (pl. malleoli) rounded protrusion of the tibia of fibula on either side of the ankle.
mandible U-shaped bone of the lower jaw
mandibular bone mandible.
marrow connective tissue filling the medullary cavity, often rich in nutrients.
mastoid process protrusion of the temporal bone that sits behind the ear.
maxill(o) upper jaw
maxillary bone bone of the upper jaw
maxillary sinus sinus on either side of the nasal cavity below the eyes.
medullary cavity soft center cavity in bone that often holds marrow.
metacarp(o) metacarpal
metacarpal one of the five bones of the hand between the wrist and the fingers.
metaphysis section of long bone between the epiphysis and diaphysis.
metatarsal bones bones of the foot between the instep(arch) and the toes.
muscle contractile tissue that plays a major role in body movement.
muscle relaxant agent that relieves muscle stiffness.
muscular dystrophy progressive degenerative disorder affecting the musculoskeletal system, and later, other organs.
musculoskeletal system system of the body including the muscles and skeleton.
my(o) muscle
myalgia muscle pain
myel(o) spinal cord; bone marrow
myelography radiographic imaging of the spinal cord
myeloma bone marrow
myodynia muscle pain
myoma benign muscle tumor
myoplasty surgical repair of muscle tissue
myositis inflammation of a muscle.
narcotic agent that relieves pain by affecting the body in ways similar to opium.
nasal bones bones that form the bridge of the nose
nasal cavity cavity on either side of the nasal septum.
neural canal space through which the spinal cord passes.
nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug agent that reduces inflammation without the use of steroids.
nucleus pulposus fibrous mass in the center portion of the intervertebral disk.
occipital bone bone that forms the lower back portion of the skull
olecranon curved end of the ulna to which tendons of the arm muscles attach; bony prominence of the elbow.
open fracture fracture with an open skin wound; compound fracture.
origin point at which muscles attach to stationary bone.
orthopedist physician who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
orthosis, orthotic external appliance used to immobilize or assist the movement of the spine or limbs.
osseus tissue connective tissue into which calcium salts are deposited.
ossification hardening into bone.
oste(o) bone
osteaglia bone pain
osteoarthritis arthritis with loss of cartilage.
osteoblast cells that forms bone.
osteoclasis breaking of a bone in order to repair or reposition it.
osteoclast large cells that reabsorbs and removes osseous tissue.
osteocyte bone cell
osteodynia bone pain
osteoma benign tumor, usually in the skull or mandible.
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone marrow and surrounding bone.
osteopath physician who combines manipulative treatment with conventional therapeutic measures.
osteoplasty surgical replacement or repair of bone.
osteoporosis degenerative thinning of bone.
osteoscarcoma malignant tumor of bone.
osteotomy cutting of bone.
palatine bone bones that help form the hard palate and nasal cavity; located behind the maxillary bones.
parietal bone flat, curved bone either side of the upper part of the skull.
patall(o) knee
patella large, sesamoid bone that forms the kneecap
pathological fracture fracture occurring at the site of already damaged bone.
ped(i), pedo foot
pelvi(o) pelvis
pelvic cavity cup-shaped cavity formed by the large bones of the pelvic girdle; contains female reproductive organs, sigmoid colon, bladder, and rectum.
pelvic girdle hip bones.
pelvis cup-shaped ring of bone and ligaments at the base of the trunk.
periosteum fibrous membrane covering the surface of bone.
phalang(o) finger or toe bone
phanlanges (sing. phalanx) long bones of the fingers and toes.
phantom limbs; phantom pain pain felt in a paralyzed or amputated limb.
phosphorus mineral important to the formation of bone.
physical therapy movement therapy to restore use of damaged areas of the body.
pod(o) foot
podagra pain in the big toe, often associated with gout.
podiatrist medical specialist who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders if the foot.
process bony outgrowth or projection.
prosthetic device artificial device used as a substitute for a missing or diseased body part.
pub(o) pubis
pubes anteroinferior portion of the hip bone.
pubic symphysis joint between the two pubic bones.
rachi(o) spine
radi(o) forearm bone
radius shorter bone of the forearm.
reduction return of a part to its normal position.
rhabd(o) rod-shaped
rhabdomy(o) striated muscle
rhabdomyoma benign tumor in striated muscle.
rhabdomyosarcoma malignant tumor in striated muscle.
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder affecting connective tissue.
rheumatoid factor test test used to detect rheumatoid arthritis
rhematologist physician who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the joints and musculoskeletal system.
rib one of twenty-four bones that form the chest wall.
rickets. disease of the skeletal system, usually caused by vitamin d deficiency.
rigidity stiffness
rigor stiffening
sacrum next-to-last spinal vertebra made up of five fused bones; vertebra that forms part of the pelvis.
scapul(o) scapula
scapula large flat bone that forms the shoulder blade.
sciatica pain in the lower back, usually radiating down the leg, from a herniated disk or other injury or condition.
scoli(o) curved
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spinal column.
sella turcica bony depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
sequestrum piece of dead tissue or bone separated from the surrounding area.
serum calcium test for calcium in the blood.
serum creatine phosphokinase enzyme active in muscle contraction, usually elevated after a myocardial infarction and in the presence of other degenerative muscle disease.
serum phosphorus test for phosphorus in the blood.
sesamoid bone bone formed in a tendon over a joint.
shin anterior ridge of the tibia.
short bones square-shaped bones with approximately equal dimensions on all sides.
simple fracture fracture with no open skin wound.
sinus hollow cavity, especially either side of two cavities on the sides of the nose.
skeleton bony framework of the body.
smooth muscle fibrous muscle of internal organs that acts involuntarily.
spasm sudden, involuntary muscle contraction.
spactic tending to have spasms.
sphenoid bone bone that forms the base of the skull
sphenoid sinus sinus above and behind the nose
spina bifida congenital defect with deformity of the spinal column.
spinal column column of vertebrae at the posterior of the body, from the neck to the coccyx.
spinal curvature abnormal curvature of the spine.
spinous process protrusion from the center of the vertebral arch.
splinting applying a splint to immobilize a body part.
spondyl(o) vertebra
spondylolisthesis degenerative condition in which one vertebra misaligns with the one below it.
spondylolysis degenerative condition of the moving part of a vertebra.
spondylosndesis fusion of two or more spinal vertebrae.
spongy bone bone with an open latticework filled with connective tissue or marrow.
sprain injury to a joint without dislocation or fracture.
spur bony projection growing out of a bone.
stern(o) sternum
strain injury to a muscle as a result of overuse.
striated muscle muscle with a ribbed appearance that is controlled at will.
styloid process peg-shaped protrusion from a bone.
subluxation partial dislocation, as between joint surfaces.
sulcus groove or furrow in the surface of bone.
suture joining of two bones parts with fibrous membrane
symphysis type of cartilaginous joint uniting two bones.
synarthrosis fibrous joint with no movement.
synov(o) synovial membrane
synovectomy removal of part or all of a joint's synovial membrane.
synovial fluid fluid that serves to lubricate joints.
synovial joint a joint that moves
synovial membrane connective tissue lining the cavity of joints and producing the synovial fluid.
talipes calcaneus deformity of the heel resulting from weakened calf muscles.
talipes valgus foot deformity characterized by eversion of the foot
talipes varus foot deformity characterized by inversion of the foot.
tars(o) tarsus
tarsus, tarsal bones seven bones of the instep (arch of the foot)
temporal bone large bone forming the base and sides if the skull
temporomandibular joint joint of the lower jaw between the temporal bone and the mandible.
ten(o), tend(o), tendin(o) tendon
tendinitis, tendonitis inflammation of a tendon
tendon fibrous band that connects muscle to bone or other structures.
tenotomy surgical cutting of a tendon.
tetany painfully long muscle contraction.
thorac(o) thorax
thoracic vertebrae twelve vertebrae of the chest area.
tibi(o) tibia
tibia larger of the two lower leg bones
tinel's sign "pins and needles" sensation felt when an injured nerve site is trapped.
traction dragging or pulling or straightening of something, as a limb, by attachment of elastic or other devices.
transverse process protrusion on either side of the vertebral arch.
tremor abnormal, repetitive muscle contractions.
trochanter bony protrusion at the upper end of the femur.
true rib seven upper ribs of the chest that attach to the sternum.
tubercle slight bony elevation to which a ligament or muscle may be attached.
tuberosity larger elevation in the surface of a bone.
uln(o) ulna
ulna larger bone of the forearm
uric acid test test for acid content in urine, elevated levels may indicate gout.
vertebr(o) vertebra
vertebra (pl. vertebrae) one of the bony segments of the spinal column.
vertebral body main portion of the vertebra, separated from arches of the vertebra
vertebral column spinal column
visceral muscle smooth muscle
vitamin d vitamin important to the formation of bone
voluntary muscle striated muscle
vomer flat bone forming the nasal septum
zygomatic bone bone that forms the cheek
A-K above the knee (amputation)
B-K below the knee (amputation)
C1, C2, etc. first cervical vertebra, second cervical vertebra, etc.
ca calcium
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome
DJD degenerative joint disease
DTR deep tendon reflux
EMG electromyogram
fx fracture
IM intramuscularly
L1, L2, etc. first lumbar vertebra, second lumbar vertebra, etc.
MCP metacarpophalangeal
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
P phosphorus
PIP proximal interphalangeal joint
ROM range of motion
T1, T2, etc. first thoracic vertebra, second thoracic vertebra, etc.
TMJ temporomandibular joint.
anastomosis surgical connection of two blood vessels to allow blood flow between them.
aneurysm ballooning of the artery wall caused by weakness in the wall.
angina angina pectoris
angina pectoris chest pain, usually caused by a lowered oxygen or blood supply to the heart.
angi(o) blood vessel
angiocardiography viewing of the heart and its major blood vessel by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
angiography viewing of the heart's major blood vessels by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
angioplasty opening of a blocked blood vessel, as by balloon dilation.
angioscopy viewing of the interior of a blood vessel using a fiberoptic catheter inserted or threaded into the vessel
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor medication used for heart failure and other cardiovascular problems; acts by dilating arteries to lower blood pressure and makes heart pump easier.
antianginal agent used to relieve or prevent attacks of angina
antiarrhythmic agent used to help normalize cardiac rhythm
anticlotting agent that prevents the formation of dangerous clots.
anticoagulant agent that prevents the formation of dangerous clots.
antihypertensive agent that helps control high blood pressure
aorta largest artery of the body; artery through which blood exits the heart.
aort(O) aorta
aortic regurgitation or reflux backward flow or leakage of blood through a faulty aortic valve.
aortic valve valve between the aorta and the left ventricle.
aortography viewing of the aorta by x-ray after injection of contrast medium.
arrhythmia irregularity in the rhythm of the heartbeat.
arteri(o) arter(o) artery
arteriography viewing of a specific artery by x-ray after injection of contrast medium
arteriole a tiny artery connecting to a capillary.
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries.
arteriotomy surgical incision into an artery, especially to remove a clot.
arteritis inflammation of an artery or arteries.
artery a thick-walled blood vessel that, in systemic circulation, carries oxygenated blood away from the heart.
asystole cardiac arrest
ather(o) fatty matter
atherectomy surgical removal of an atheroma
atheroma a fatty deposit (plaque) in the wall of an artery.
atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries caused by the building of atheromas
atri(o) atrium
atrial fibrillation an irregular, usually rapid, heartbeat caused by overstimulation of the AV node.
atrioventricular block heart block; partial or complete blockage of the electrical impulses from the atrioventricular node.
atrioventricular bundle bundles of fibers in the interventricular septum that transfer charges in the heart's conduction system; also called bundle of His.
atrioventricular node (AV node) specialized part of the interatrail septum that sends a charge to the bundle of His.
atrioventricular valve one of two valves that control blood flow between the atria and ventricles.
atrium(pl. atria) either of the two upper chambers of the heart.
auscultation process of listening to body sounds via a stethoscope.
bacterial endocarditis bacterial inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.
balloon catheter dilation insertion of a balloon catheter into a blood vessel to open the passage so blood can flow freely
balloon valvuloplasty procedure that uses a balloon catheter to open narrowed orifices in cardiac valves.
bicuspid valve atrioventricular valve on the left side of the heart.
blood essential fluid containing plasma and other elements that circulates throughout the body; delivers nutrients to and removes waste from the body's cells.
blood pressure measure of the force of blood surging against the walls of the arteries.
blood vessel any of the tubular passageways in the cardiovascular systems through which blood travels.
bradycardia heart rate of fewer than 60 beats per minute.
bruit sound of murmur, especially an abnormal heart sound heard on auscultation, especially of the carotid artery.
bundle of His bundle of fibers in the interventricular septum that transfer charges in the heart's conduction system
bypass a structure (usually a vein graft) that creates a new passage for blood to flow from one artery to another artery or part of an artery; used to create a detour around blockages in arteries.
calcium channel blocker medication that lessens the ability of calcium ions to enter heart and blood vessel muscle; used to lower blood pressure and normalize some arrhythmias.
capillary a tiny blood vessel that forms the exchange point between the arterial and venous vessels.
carbon dioxide waste material transported in the venous blood
cardi(o) heart
cardiac arrest sudden stopping of the heart; also called asystole.
cardiac catheterziation process of passing a thin catheter through an artery or vein to the heart to take blood samples, inject a contrast medium, or measure various pressures.
cardiac cycle repeated contraction and relaxation of the heart as it circulates blood within itself and pumps it out to the rest of the body or the lungs.
cardiac enzyme studies blood test for determining levels of enzymes during a myocardial infarction; serum enzyme tests.
cardiac MRI viewing of the heart by magnetic resonance imaging.
cardiac scan process of viewing the heart muscle at work by scanning the heart of a patient into whom a radioactive substance has been injected.
cardiac tamponade compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac.
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle
cardiopulmonary bypass procedure used during surgery to divert blood flow to and from the heart through a heart-lung machine and back into circulation.
cardiotonic medication for congestive heart failure; increases the force of contractions of the myocardium.
carotid artery artery that transport oxygenated blood to the head and neck
cholesterol fatty substance present in animal fats,cholesterol circulates in the bloodstream, sometimes causing arterial plaque to form.
claudication limping caused by inadequate blood supply during activity; usually subsides during rest.
coarctation of the aorta abnormal narrowing of the aorta
conduction system part of the heart containing specialized tissue that sends charges through heart fibers, causing the heart to contract and relax at regular intervals.
congenital heart disease heart disease (usually a type of malformation) that exists at birth.
congestive heart failure inability of the heart to pump enough blood out during the cardiac cycle; collection of fluid in the lungs result.
constriction compression or narrowing caused by contraction, as of a vessel.
coronary angioplasty opening of a blocked blood vessel, as by balloon dilation.
coronary artery blood vessel that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
coronary artery disease condition that reduces the flow of blood and nutrients through the arteries of the heart.
coronary bypass surgery a structure (usually a vein graft) that creates a new passage for blood to flow from one artery to another artery or part of an artery; used to create a detour around blockages in arteries.
cyanosis bluish or purplish coloration, as of the skin, caused by deficient oxygenation of the blood.
deep vein thrombosis formation of a thrombus (clot) in a deep vein, such as femoral vein.
depolarization contracting state if the myocardial tissue in the heart's conduction system.
diastole relaxation phase of a heartbeat
digital subtraction angiography use of two angigrams done with different dyes to provide a comparison bewteen the results.
diuretic medication that promotes the excretion of urine
doppler ultrasound ultrasound test of blood flow in certain vessels.
ductus arteriosus structure in the fetal circulatory systems through which blood flows to bypass the fetus's nonfunctioning lungs.
ductus venosus structure in the fetal circulatory system through which blood flows to bypass the fetal liver.
dysrthythmia abnormal heart rhythm.
echocardiography use of sound waves to produce images showing the structure and motion of the heart.
ejection fraction percentage of teh volume of teh contents of the left ventricle ejected with each contratction.
electrocardiography use of the electrocardiograph in diagnosis.
embolectomy surgical removal of an embolus
embolus mass of foreign materail blocking a vessel.
endarterectomy surgical removal of the diseased portion of the lining of an artery
endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium, espcecially one caused by a bacterial, (for example, staphylococci) or fungal agent.
endocardium membranous lining of the chambers and valves of the heart, the innermost layer of heart tissues.
endothelium lining of the arteries that secretes substances into the blood.
endovascular surgery any of various procedures performed during cardiac catheterization, such as angioscopy and atherectomy.
epicardium outermost layer of the heart tissue.
essentail hypertension high blood pressure without any known cause
femoral artery an artery that supplies blood to the thigh.
fibrillation random, chaotic, irregular heart rthythm.
flutter regular but very rapid heartbeat.
Fontan's operation surgical procedure that create's a bypass from the right atrium to the main pulmonary artery; Fontan's procedure.
foramen ovale opening in the septum of the fetal heart that closes at birth.
gallop triple sound of a heartbeat, usually indicative of serious heart disease.
graft any tissue or organ implanted to replace or mend damaged areas.
hardening of the arteries ateriosclerosis
heart musclar organ that receives blood from the veins and sends it into the arteries.
heart block heart block; partial or complete blockage of the electrical impulses from the artrioventricular node to the ventricles.
heart transplant implantation of the heart of a person who has just died into a person whose diseased heart cannot sustain life.
hemangi(o) blood vessel
hemorrhoidectomy surgical removal of hemmorrhoids.
hemorrhoids varicose condition of veins in the anal region.
heparin anticoagulant present in the body; also, synthetic version administered to prevent clotting.
high blood pressure chronic condition with blood pressure greater than 140/90
Holter monitor portable device that provides a 24-hour electrocardiogram.
hypertension chronic condition with blood pressure greater than 140/90
hypertension heart disease heart disease caused, or worsened, by high blood pressure.
hypotension chronic condition with blood pressure below normal.
infarct area of necrosis caused by a sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood.
infarction sudden drop in the supply of arterial or venous blood, often due to an embolus or thrombus.
inferior vena cava large vein that draws blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.
intermittent claudication attacks of limping, particularly in the legs, due to ischemia of the muscles.
intracardiac tumor a tumor within one of the heart chambers.
intravascular stent stent placed within a blood vessel to allow blood to flow freely.
ischemia localized blood insufficiency caused by an obstruction.
left atrium upper left heart chamber
left ventricle lower left heart chamber
lipid-lowering helpful in lowering cholesterol levels.
lipid profile laboratory test that provides the levels of lipids, triglycerides, and other substances in the blood.
low blood pressure chronic condition with blood pressure below normal
lumen channel inside an artery through which blood flows.
mitral insufficiency or reflux backward flow of blood due to a damaged mitral valve.
mitral stenosis abnormal narrowing at the opening of the mitral valve.
mitral valve atrioventricular valve on the left side of the heart
mitral valve prolapse backward flow of blood into the left atrium due to protrusion of one or both mitral cusps into the left atrium during contractions.
multiple-gated acquisition angiography (MUGA) radioactive scan showing heart function
murmur soft heart humming sound heard between normal beats.
myocardial infarction sudden drop in the supply of blood to an area of the heart muscle, usually due toa blockage in a coronary artery.
myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium
necrosis death of tissue or an organ or part due to irreversible damage; usually a result of oxygen deprivation.
nitrate any of several medications that dilate the veins, arteries, or coronary arteries; used to control angina.
occlusion the closing of a blood vessel
pacemaker term for the sinoatrial node (SA node); also, an artifical device that regulates heart rhythm.
palpitations uncomfortable pulsations of the heart felt as a thumping in the chest.
patent ductus arteroosus a condition at birth in which the ductus arteriosus, a small duct between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, remains abnormally open.
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty insertion of a balloon catheter into a blood vessel to open the passage so blood can flow freely.
perfusion deficit lack if flow through a blood vessel, usually caused by an occlusion.
pericardi(o) pericardium
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
pericardium protective covering of the heart.
peripheral vascular disease vascular disease in the lower extremities, usually due to blockages in the arteries of the groin or legs.
petechiae minute hemorrhages in the skin
phleb(o) vein
phlebitis inflammation of the vein
phlebography viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
phlebotomy drawing blood froma vein via a small incision
plaque buildup of solid material, such as fatty deposit, on the lining of an artery.
polarization resting state of the myocardial tissue in the conduction system of the heart.
popliteal artery an artery that supplies blood to the cells of the area behind the knee.
positron emission tomography scans type of nuclear image that measures movement of areas of the heart.
premature atrial contractions (PACs) atrial contractions that occur before normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations.
premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) ventricular contractions that occur before the normal impulse; can be the cause of palpitations.
pulmonary artery one of two arteries that carry blood that is low in oxygen from the heart to the lungs.
pulmonary artery stenosis narrowing of the pulmonary artery, preventin the lungs from receiving enought blood from the heart to oxygenate.
pulmonary edema abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs
pulmonary valve valve that controls the blood flow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries.
pulmonary vein one of four veins that bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
pulse rhythmic expansion and contraction of blood vessel, usually an artery.
Purkinje fibers fibers in the ventricle that cause it to contract.
Raynaud's phenomenon spasm in the arteries of the fingers causing numbness or pain.
repolarization recharging state; transiion from contraction to resting that occurs in the conduction system of the heart.
rheumatic heart disease heart valve and/or muscle damage caused by an untreated streptococcal infection.
right atrium upper right chamber of the heart
right ventricle lower right chamber of the heart
risk factor any of various factors considered to increase the probability that a disease will occur; for example, high blood pressure and smoking are considered risk factors for heart disease.
rub frictional sound heard between heartbeats, usually indicating a pericardial murmur.
saphenous vein any group of veins that transport deoxygenated blood from the legs.
secondary hypertension hypertension having a known cause, such as kidney disease.
semilunar valve one of the two valves that prevent the backflow of blood flowing out of the heart into the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
septal defect congenital abnormality consisting of an opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles.
septum partition between the left and right chambers of the heart
serum enzyme tests laboratory test performed to detect enzymes present during or after a myocardial infarction; cardiac enzyme studies.
sinoatrial node (SA node) region of the right atrium containing specialized tissue that sends electrical impulses to the heart muscle; causing it to connect.
sinus rhythm normal heart rhythm
sonography production of images based on the echoes of sound waves against structures.
sphygm(o) pulse
sphygmomanometer device for measuring blood pressure
stenosis narrowing, particularly of blood vessel or of the cardiac valves.
stent surgically implanted device used to hold something (as a blood vessel) open.
stress test test that measures heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions while the patient is exercising on a treadmill.
superior vena cava large vein that transport blood collected from the upper part of the body to the heart.
systole contraction phase of the heartbeat
tachycardia heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.
tetralogy of Fallot set of four congenital heart abnomralities appearing together that cause deoxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation; ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, incorrect position of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
thromb(o) blood clot
thrombectomy surgical removal of a thrombus
thrombolytic agent the dissolves a thrombus
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein with a thrombus
thrombosis presence of a thrombus in a blood vessek.
thrombotic occlusion narrowing caused by a thrombus.
thrombus stationary blood clot in the cardiovascular system, usually found from matter found in the blood.
tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, TPA) agent that prevents a thrombus from forming.
tricuspid stenosis abnormal narrowing of the opening of the tricuspid valve.
triglyceride fatty substance; lipid
valve any of various structures that slow or prevent fluid from flowing backward or forward
valve replacement surgical replacement of a coronary valve.
valvotomy incision into a cardiac valve to remove an obstruction
valvulitis inflammation of a heart valve.
valvuloplasty surgical reconstruction of a cardiac valve.
varicose vein dilated, enlarged, or twisted vein, usually on the leg.
vas(o) blood vessel
vasoconstrictor agent that narrows the blood vessels
vasodilator agent that dilates or widens the blood vessels.
vegetation clot on a heart valve or opening, usually caused by infection.
vein any of various blood vessels carrying deoxygenated blood toward the heart, except the pulmonary vein.
vena cava large vein that transport blood collected from the upper part of the body to the heart. Large vein that draws blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.
ven(o) vein
venipuncture small puncture into a vein, usually to draw blood or inject a solution.
venography viewing of a vein by x-ray after injection of a contrast medium.
ventricle either of the two lower chambers of the heart.
ventriculgram x-ray of a ventricle taken after injection of a contrast medium.
venule a tiny vein connecting to a capillary.
AcG accelerator globulin
AF atrial fibrillation
AS aortic stenosis
ASCVD arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease
ASD atrial septal defect
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
AV atrioventricular
BP blood pressure
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAD coronary artery disease
cath catheter
CCU coronary care unit
CHD coronary heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
CO cardiac output
CPK creatine phosphokinase
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CVA cerebrovascular accident
CVD cardiovascular disease
DSA digital subtraction angiography
DVT deep venous thrombosis
ECG, EKG electrocardiogram
ECHO echocardiogram
ETT exercise tolerance test
GOT glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
HDL high-density lipoprotein
LDH lactate dehydroganase
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LV left ventricle
LVH left ventricular hypertrophy
MI mitral insufficiency; myocardial infarction
MR mitral regurgitation
MS mitral stenosis
MUGA multiple-gated acquisition scan
MVP mitral valve prolapse
PTCA percutanceous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PVC premature ventricular contraction
SA sinoatrial
SV stroke volume
tPA, TPA tissue plasminogen activator
VLDL very low-density lipoprotein
VSD ventricular septal defect
VT ventricular tachycardia
adam's apple thyroid carilage, supportive structure of the larynx; larger in males than in females.
adenoid(o) adenoid gland
adenoidectomy removal of the adenoids
adenoiditis inflammation of the adenoids.
adenoids collection of lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils.
alveol(o) alveolus
alveolus (pl. alveoli) air sac at the end of each bronchiole.
anthracosis lung disease caused by long-term in halation of coal dust; black lung disease.
antitussives agent that control coughing
apex topmost section of the lung
apnea cessation of breathing
arterial blood gases laboratory test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood
asbestosis lung disorder caused by long-term inhalation of asbestos (as in construction work).
asthma chronic condition with obstruction or narrowing of the bronchial airways.
atelectasis collapse of a lung or part of a lung.
auscultation listening to internal sounds with a stethoscope.
bacilli a type of bacteria
base bottom section of the lung
black lung lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of coal dust.
bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
bronch(o), bronchi(o) bronchus
bronchial alveolar lavage retrieval of fluid for examination through a bronchoscope.
bronchial brushing retrieval of material for biopsy by insertion of a brush through a bronchoscope.
bronchiol(o) bronchiole
bronchiole fine subdivision of the bronchi made of smooth muscle and elastic fibers.
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
bronchodilators agents that dilate the walls of the bronchi
bronchography radiological picture of the trachea and bronchi
bronchoplasty surgical repari of a bronchus
bronchoscope device used to examine airways
bronchospasm sudden contraction in the bronchi that causes coughing
bronchus (pl. bronchi) one of the two airways from the trachea to the lungs.
capn(o) carbon dioxide
Cheyne-Stokes respiration irregular breathing pattern with a period of apnea followed by deep, labored breathing that becomes shallow, then apneic.
chronic bronchitis recurring or long-lasting bouts of bronchitis
chronic obstuctive pulmonary disease disease of the bronchail tubes or lungs with chronic obstruction.
cilia hairlike extensions of the cell's surface that usually provide some protection by sweeping foreign particles away.
crackles popping sounds heard in the lung collapse or other conditions; rales
croup acute respiratory syndrome in children or infants accompanied by seal-like coughing.
cystic fibrosis disease that causes chronic airway obstruction and also affects the bronchial tubes.
diaphragm membranous muscle between the abdominal and thoracic cavities that contracts and relaxes during the respiratory cycle.
diphtheria acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by bacteria
dysphonia hoarseness usually caused by laryngitis
dyspnea difficult breathing
emphysema chronic condition of hyperinflation of the air sacs; often caused by prolonged smoking.
empyema pus in the pleural cavity
endoscope tube used to view a body cavity
endotracheal intubation insertion of a tube through the nose or mouth, pharynx, and larynx and into the trachea to establish an airway.
epiglott(o) epiglottis
epiglottis cartilaginous flap that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from enerting the airway.
epiglottitis inflammation of the epiglottis
epistaxis bleeding from the nose, usually caused by trauma or a sudden rupture of the blood vessels of the nose.
eupnea normal breathing
exhalation breathing out
expectorants agents that promote the coughing and expelling of mucus.
expiration exhalation
external nares External openings at the base of the nose; also called external nares
external respiration exchange of air between the body and the outside enviroment.
glottis Part of the larynx consisting of the vocal folds of mucous membrane and muscle
Heimlich maneuver Procedureto prevent choking to death. One person places his or her hands on the midsectionof the choking person's adbomen and thrusts upward until the obstruction is dislodged.
hemoptysis lung or bronchial hemorrhage resulting in the spitting of blood.
hemothorax Blood in the pleural cavity
hilum (also hilus) Midsection of the lung where the nerves and vessels enter and exit.
hypercapnia Excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in lings, usually associated wht hypoventilation
hyperpnea Abnormally deep breathing
hyperventilation Abnormally fast breathing in and out, often associated with anxiety.
hypopharynx Laryngopharynx
hypopnea Shallow breathing
hyppoventilation Abnormally low movement of air in out of the lungs.
hypoxemia deficient amount of oxygen in the blood.
hypoxia deficient amount of oxygen in the tissue.
inferior lobe Bottom lobe of the lung
inhalation breathing in
inspiration inhalation
intercostal muscles muscles between the ribs
internal respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells.
laryng(o) larynx
laryngectomy Removal of the larynx
laryngitis Inflammation of the larynx
laryngocentesis Surgical puncture of the larynx
laryngopharynx Part of the pharynx below and behind the larynx
laryngoplasty Visual examination of the mouth and larynx using an endoscope.
laryngospasm Sudden contraction of the larynx, which may cause coughing and may restrict breathing.
laryngostomy Creation of an artificial opening in the larnyx
laryngotracheobronchitis Inflammation of the larnyx, trachea, and bronchi
laryngotracheotomy Incision into the larynx and trachea
larynx Organ of voice production in the respiratory tract, between the pharynx and the trachea; voice box
lob(o) lobe of the lung
lobeectomy Removal of one of the lobes of a lung
lung One of two organs of respiration (left lung and right lung) in the thoracic cavity where oxyegenation of blood takes place
mediastin(o) mediastinum
mediastinoscopy Visual examination of the mediastinum and all the organs within it using an endscope
mediastinum Median portion of the thoracic cavity; septum between two areas of an organ or cavity
mesothelioma Rare cancer of the lungs assocaited with asbestosis
middle lobe Middle section of the right lung
nas(O) nose
nasal cavity Opening in the external nose where air enters the body
nasal septum Cartilaginous division of the external nose
nasopharyngitis Inflammation of the nose and the pharynx
nosopharyngoscopy Examination of the nasal passages and the pharynx using an endscope
nasopharynx Portion of the throat above the soft palate
nebulizer Device that delivers medication through the nose or mouth in a fine spray to the respiratory tract
nose External structure supported by nasal bones and containing cavity
nosebleed Bleeding from the nose, usually caused by trauma or a sudden rupture of the blood vessels of the nose.
nostrils External openings at the base of the nose; also called external nares
or(o) mouth
oropharynx Back portion of the mouth, a division of the pharynx
orthopnea Difficulty in breathing, especially while lying down
otorhinolaryngologist Medical doctor who diagnoses and treats disorders of the ear, nose and throat
ox(o), oxi, oxy oxygen
pansinusitis Inflammation of all the sinuses
paranasal sinuses Area of the nasal cavity where external air is warmed by blood in the mucous membrane lining
parietal pleura Outer layer of the pleura
paroxysmal Sudden, as a spasm or convulsion
peak flow meter Device for measuring breathing capacity
percussion Tapping on the surface of the body to see if lungs are clear
pertussis severe infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by bacteria; whooping cough
pharyng(o) pharynx
pharyngeal tonsils Adenoids
pharyngitis Inflammation of the pharynx
pharynx Passageway at back of mouth for air and food; throat
phon(o) voice, sound
phren(o) diaphragm
pleur(o) pleura
pleura (pl. pleurae) Double layer of membrane making up the outside of the lungs
pleural cavity Space between the two pleura
pleural effusion Escape of fluid into the pleural cavity
pleuritis, pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura
pleurocentesis Surgical puncture of pleural space
pleuropexy Fixing in place of the pleura surgically, usually in case of injury or deterioration
pneum(o), pneumon(o) air, lung
pneumobronchotomy incision of the lung and bronchus
pneumoconiosis Lung condition caused by inhaling dust
pneumonectomy Removal of a lung
pneumonia Acute infection of the alveoli
pneumonitis Inflammation of the lung
pneumothorax Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity
pulminary abscess Large collection of pus in the lungs
pulmonary edema Fluid in the air sacs and brochioles usually caused by failure of the heart to pump enough blood to and from lungs
pulmonary embolism Clot in the lungs
pulmonary function tests Tests that measure the mechanics of breathing
rales Popping sounds heard in lung collapse or other conditions; rales
rhin(o) nose
rhinitis Nasal inflammation
rhinoplasty Surgical repair of the nose
rhinorrhea Nasal discharge
rhonchi Whistling sounds heard on inspiration in certain breathing disorders, especially asthma
septoplasty Surgical repair of the nasal septum
septostomy Incision of the nasal septum
septum Cartilaginous division, as in the nose or mediastinum
silicosis Lung condition caused by silica dust from grinding rocks or glass or other materials used in manufacturing
sungultus Hiccuping
sinusitis Inflammation of the sinuses
sinusotomy Incision of a sinus
soft palate Flexible muscular sheet that separates the nasopharynx from the rest of the pharynx
spir(o) breathing
spirometer Testing maching that measures the lungs' volume and capacity
sputum sample or culture Cultureof material that is expectorated (or brought back as mucus)
steth(o) chest
stridor High-pitched crowing sound heard in certain respiratory conditions
superior lobe Topmost lobe of each lung
sweat test Test for cystic fibrosis that measures the amount of salt in sweat.
tachypnea Abnormally fast breathing
thorac(o) thorax, chest
thoracic surgeon Surgeon who specializes in surgery of the thorax
thoracocentesis Surgical puncture of the chest cavity
thoracostomy Establishment of an opening in the chest cavity
thoracotomy Incision into the chest cavity
thorax Chest cavity
throat Passageway at back of mouth for air and food; throat
throat culture Test for streptococcal or other infections in which a swab taken on the surface of the throat is placed in a culture to see if certain bacteria grow
thyroid catilage Thyroid cartilgae, supportive structure of the larynx; larger in males than in females
tonsil(o) tonsils
tonsillectomy Removal of the tonsils
tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils
trachea(o) trachea
trachea Airway from the larynx into the bronchi; windpipe
tracheitis Inflammation of the trachea
tracheoplasty Repair of the trachea
tracheostomy Creation of an artificial opening in the trachea
tracheotomy Incision into the trachea
tuberculosis Acute infectious disease caused by bacteria called bacilli
upper respiratory infection Infection of all or part of upper portion of respiratory tract
ventilator Mechanical breathing device
visceral pleura Inner layer of the pleura
vocal cords Strips of epithelial tissue that vibrate and play a major role in the production of sound
voice box Organ of voice production in the respiratory tract, between the pharynx and the trachea; voice box
wheezes Whistling sounds heard on inspiration in certain breathing disorders, especially asthma
whooping cough Severe infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by bacteria; whooping cough
windpipe Airway from the larynx into the bronchi; windpipe
ABG Arterial blood gases
AFB Acid-fast bacillus(causes tuberculossis)
A&P auscultation and percussion
AP anteroposterior
ARD adult respiratory disease
ARDS adult respiratory disease syndrome
ARF acute respiratory failure
BS breath sounds
COLD chronic obstructive lung disease
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CTA clear to auscultation
CXR chest x-ray
DOE dyspnea on exertion
DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (combined vaccination)
ENT ear, nose, and throat
ET Tube endotracheal intubation tube
FEF forced expiratory flow
FEV forced expiratory volume
FVC forced vital capacity
HBOT hyperbaric oxygen therapy
IMV intermittent mandatory ventilation
IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing
IRDS infant respiratory distress syndrome
IRV inspiratory reserve volume
LLL left lower lobe (of the lung)
LUL left upper lobe (of the lung)
MBC maximal breathing capacity
MDI metered dose inhaler
PA posteroanterior
PCP pneumocystis carininn pneumonia (a type of pneumonia to which AIDS patients are susceptible)
PEEP postitive and expiratory pressure
PFT pulmonary function tests
PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; postnasal drip
RD respiratory disease
RDS respiratory disease syndrome
RLL right lower lobe (of the lungs)
RUL right upper lobe (of the lungs)
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
SOB shortness of breath
T&A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TB tuberculosis
TLC total lung capacity
TPR temperature, pulse, and respiration
URI upper respiratory infection
VC vital capacity
V/Q scan ventilation/perfusion scan
absence seizure Mild epileptic seizure consisting of brief disorientation with the environment
acetylcholine Chemical that stimulates cells
afferent neuron Neuron that carries information from the sensory receptors to the central nervous system
agnosia Inability to receive and understand outside stimuli
Alzheimer's Disease Any of variety of degenerative brain diseases causing thought disorders, gradual loss of muscle control, and eventually, death
amnesia Loss of memory
amyotrophic laterla sclerosis Degenerative disease of the motor neurons leading to loss muscular control and death
analgesic Agent that relieves or eliminates pain
anesthetic Agent that causes loss of feeling or sensation
aneurysm Abnormal widening of an artery wall that bursts and releases blood
anticonvulsant Agent that lessens or prevents convulsions
aphasia Loss of speech
apraxia Inability to properly use familiar objects
arachnoid Middle layer of meninges
astrocyte, astroglia A type of neuroglia that maintains nutrient and chemicals levels in neurons
astrocytoma Type of glioma formed from astrocytes
ataxia Condition which uncoordinated voluntary muscular movement, usually resulting from disorders or the cerebellum or spinal cord
aura Group of sypmtoms that precede a seizure
autonomic nervous system Part of the peripheral nervous system that carries impulses from the central nervous system to glands, smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and various membranes
axon Part of a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body
bacterial meningitis Meningitis caused by a bacteria; pyrogenic meningitis
Babinski's reflex Reflex on the plantar surface of the foot.
basal ganglia Large masses of gray matter within the cerebrum
Bell's palsy Paralysis of one side of the face; usually temporary
brain Body organ responisble for controlling the body's functions and interactions with outside stimuli
brain contusion Bruising of the surface of the brain without penetration
brainstem One of the four major divisions of the brain; division that controls certain heart, lung, and visual functions
cell body Part of a nerve cell that has branches or fibers that reach out to send or receive impulses
central nervous system Body system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges
cerebell(o) cerebellum
cerebellitis Inflammation of the cerebellum
cerebellum One of the four major divisions of the brain; division that coordinates musculoskeletal movement
cerebr(o) cerebri cerebrum
cerebral angiogram X-ray of the brain's blood vessels after a dye is injected
cerebral cortex Outer portion of the cerebrum
cerebral infarction Neurological incident caused by disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
cerebral palsy Congential disease caused by damage to the cerebrum during gestation or birth and resulting in lack of motor coordination.
cerebrospinal fluid Watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord
cerebrovascular accident Neurological incident caused by damage disruption in normal blood supply to the brain;stroke
cerebrum One of the four major divisions of the brain; division involved with emotions,memory, conscious thought, moral behaviorm sensory interpretations, and certain bodily movement
coma Abnormally deep sleep with little or no respons to stimuli
computerized (axial) tomography scan Radiographic imaging that produces cross-sectional images
concussion Brain injury due to trauma
conductivity Ability to transmit a signal
convolution Folds in the cerebral cortex; gyri
cordotomy Resectioning of a part of the spinal cord
corpus callosum Bridge of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
crani(o) cranium
cranial nerves Any of 12 pairs of nerves tha tcarry impulses to and from the brain
craniectomy Removal of a part of the skull
craniotomy Incision into the skull
dementia Deterioration in mental capacity, usually in the elderly
demyelination Destruction of myelin sheath, particularly in MS
dendrite A thin branching extension of a nerve cell that conducts nerve impulses toward the cell body
diencephalon One of the four major structures of the brain; it is the deep portion of the brain and contains the thalamus
dopamine Substance in the brain or manufactured substance that helps relieve symptoms of Parkinson's disease
dura mater Outermost layer of meninges
duritis Inflammation of the dura mater
dysphasis Speech difficulty
efferent neuron Neuron that carries information to the muscles and glands from the central nervous system
electrencephalogram Record of the electrical impulses of the brain
embolic stroke Sudden stroke caused by an embolus
embolus Clot from somewhere in the body that blocks a small blood vessel in the brain
encephal(o) brain
encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
encephalogram Record of the radiographic study of the ventricles of the brain
epidural space Area between the pia mater and the bones of the spinal cord
epilepsy Chronic recurrent seizure activity
epithalamus One of the parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory relay station
evoked potentials Record of the electrical wave pattern observedin EEG
excitability Ability to respond to stimuli
fainting Loss of consciousness due to a sudden lack of oxygen in the brain
fissure One of may indentations of the cerebrum; sulci
frontal lobe One of the four parts of each hemisphere of the cerebrum
gait Manner of walking
gangli(o) Ganglion
gangliitis Inflammation of the ganglion
ganglion (pl. ganglia, ganglions) Any group of nerve cell bodies forming a mass or a cyst in the peripheral nervous system; usually forms in the wrist
gli(o) neuroglia
glioblastoma multiforme Most malignant type of glioma
glioma Tumor that arises from neuroglia
grand mal seizure Severe epileptic seizure accompanied by convulsions, twitching, and loss of consciouness
gyrus(pl. gyri) Folds in the cerebral cortex; gyri
hemorrhagic stroke Stroke caused by blood escaping from a damaged cerebral artery
Huntington's chorea Hereditary disorder with uncontrollable, jerking movements
hydrocephalus Overproduction of fluid in the brain
hypnotic Agent that induces sleep
hypothalamus One of the parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory realy station
interneuron Neuron that carries and processes sensory information
lobectomy Removal of a portion of the brain to treat certain disorders
lobotomy Removal of the frontal lobe of the brain
Lou Gehrig's disease Degenerative disease of the motor neurons leading to loss of muscular control and death
lumbar puncture Withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from between two lumbar vertebrae
medulla oblongata Part of the brain stem that regulates hear and lung functions, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing
mening(o), meningi(o) meninges
meninges (sing. meninx) Three layers of membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord
meningioma Tumor that arises from the meninges
meningitis Inflammation of the meninges
meningocele In spina bifida cystica, protrusion of the spinal meninges above the surface of the skin
meningomyelocele IN spina bifida cystica, protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord above the surface of the skin
microglia A type of neuroglia that removes debris
midbrain Part of the brainstem involved with visual reflexes
multiple sclerosis (MS) Degenerative disease with loss of myelin, resulting in muscle weakness, extreme fatigue, and some paralysis
myasthenia gravis Disease involving overproduction of antibodies that block certain neurotransmitters; causes muscle weakness
myel(o) Bone marrow, spinal cord
myelin sheath Fatty tissue that covers axons
myelitis Inflammation of the spinal cord
myelogram X-ray of the spinal cord after a contrast medium has been injected
narcolepsy Nervous system disorder that causes uncontrollable, sudden lapses into deep sleep
nerve Bundle of neurons that bear electrical messages to the organs and muscles of the body
nerve cell Basic cell of the nervous system having three parts: cell body, dendrite, and axon; neuron
nerve conduction velocity Timing of the conductivity of an electrical shock administered to peripheral nerves
nerve impulse Release energy that is received or transmitted by tissue or organs and that usually provokes a response
neur(o), neuri nerve
neurectomy Surgical removal of a nerve
narcotic Agent that relieves pain by inducing a stuporous or euphoric state
neurilemma Membranous covering that protects the myelin sheath
neuritis Inflammation of the nerves
neuroglia, neuroglial Cell of the nervous system that does not transmit impulse
neuron Basic cell of the nervous systen having three parts; nerve cell
neuroplasty Surgical repair of a nerve
neurorrhaphy Suturing of a severed nerve
neurosurgeon Medical specialist who performs surgery on the brain and spinal cord
neurotomy Dissection of a nerve
neurotransmitter various substances located in tiny sacs at the end of the axon
occipital lobe One of the four parts of each hemisphere of the cerebrum
occlusion Blocking of a blood vessel
oligodendroglia A type of neuroglia that produces myelin and helps support neurons
oligodendroglioma Type of glioma formed from oligodendroglia
palsy Partial or complete paralysis
parasympathetic nervous system Part of the autonomic nervous system that operates when the body is in a normal state
parietal lobe One of the four part of each hemisphere of the cerebrum
Parkinson's disease Degeneration of nerves in the brain caused by lack of sufficient dopmanine
PET (positron emission tomography) Imaging of the brain using radioactive isotopes and tomography
petit mal seizure Mild epileptic seizure consisting of brief cisorientation with the environment
pia mater Innermost layer of meninges
polysomnography Recording of electrical and movement patterns during sleep
pons Part of the brainstem that controls certain respiratory functions
pyrogenic meningitis Meningitis caused by bacteria; can be fatal; bacterail meningitis
radiculitis Inflammation of the spinal nerve roots
receptor Tissue or organ that receives nerve impulses
reflex Involuntary muscular contraction in response to a stimulus
sciatica Inflammation of the sciatic nerve
sedative Agent that relieves feeling of agitation
shingles Viral disease affecting the peripheal nerves
somatic nervous system Part of the peripheral nervous system that receives and processes sensory input from various parts of the body
somnambulsim Sleepwalking
somnolence Extreme sleepiness caused by a neurological disorder
SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) brain scan Brain image produced by the use of radioactive isotopes
spin(o) spine
spina bifida Congential defect of the spinal column
spinal cord Ropelike tissue that sits inside the vertebral column and from which spinal nerves extend
spinal nerves Any of 31 pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the spinal corn and the torso and extremities
sterotaxy or stereotactic surgery Destruction of deep-seated brain structures using three-dimensional coordinates to locate the structures
stimulus (pl. stimuli) Anything that arouses a response
stroke Neurological incident caused by disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
subdural space Area between the dura mater and pia mater across which the arachnoid runs
sulcus (pl.sulci) One of many indentations of the cerebrum; sulci
sympathetic nervous system Of the part of the autonomic nervous system that operates when the body is under stress
synapse Space over which nerve impulses jump from one neuron to another
syncope Loss of consciousness due to a sudden lack of oxygen to the brain
Tay-Sachs disease Hereditary disease that causes deterioration in the central nervous system and eventually, death
temporal lobe One of the four parts of each hemisphere of the cerebrum
terminal end fibers Group of fibers at the end of an axon that passes the impulses leaving the neuron to the next neuron
thalam(o) thalamus
thalamus One of the four parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory relay station
thrombotic stroke Stroke caused by a thrombus
thrombus Blood clot
tics Twitching movement that accompany some neurological disorders
tonic-clonic seizure Severe epileptic seizure accompanied by convulsions, twitching, and loss of consciousness
trancranial sonogram Brain images produced by the use of sound waves
trephination Circular incision into the skull
Tourette syndrome Neurological disorders that causes uncontrollable speech sounds and tics
transient ischemic attack Short neurological incident usually not resulting in permanent injury, but usually signaling that a larger stroke may occur
vag(o) vagus nerve
vagotomy Surgical cutting off of the vagus nerve
ventral thalamus One of the four parts of the diencephalon; serves as a sensory relay station
ventricle Cavity in the brain for cerebrospinal fluid
ventricul(o) ventricle
viral meningitis Meningitis caused by a virus and not as severe as pyrogenic meningitis
Ach acetylcholine
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
BBB blood-brain barrier
CNS central nervous system
CP cerebral palsy
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CT or CAT scan computerized (axial) tomography
CVA cerebrovascular accident
CVD cerebrovascular disease
EEG electroencephalogram
ICP intracranial pressure
LP lumbar puncture
MRA magnetic resonance angiography
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
SAH subarachnoid hemorrhage
TIA transient ischemic attack
acetone Type of ketone normally found in urine in small quantities; found in larger quantities in diabetic urine
albumin Simple protein; when leaked into urine, may indicate a kidney problem
albuminuria Presence of albumin in urine, usually indicative of disease
antispamodic Pharmacological agent that relieves spasms; also decreases frequency of urination
anuresis Abnormal retention of urine
anuria Lack of urine formation
atresia Abnormal narrowing, as of the ureters or urethra
azotemia Excess of urea and other wastes in the blood
bilirubin Substance produced in the liver; elevated levels may indicate liver disease or hepatitis when found in urine
bladder Organ where urine collects before being excreted from the body
bladder cancer Malignancy of the bladder
Bowman's capsule Capsule surrounding a glomerulus and serving as a collection site for urine
Bright's disease Inflammation of the glomeruli that can result in kidney failure
cali(o), calic(o) calix
calices, calyces, (sing. calix, calyx) Cup-shaped structures in the renal pelvis for the collection of urine
casts materials formed in urine when protein accumlates; may indicate renal disease
condom catheter Disposable catheter for urinary sample collection or incontinence
cortex Outer portion of the kidney
creatine Substance found in urine; elevated levels may indicate muscular dystrophy
creatinine A component creatine
cyst(o) bladder
cystectomy Surgical removal of the bladder
cystitis Inflammation of the bladder
cystocele Hernia of the bladder
cystolith Bladder stone
cystopexy Surgical fixing of the bladder to the abdominal wall
cystoplasty Surgical repair of the bladder
cystorrhaphy Suturing of a damaged bladder
cystoscope Tubular instrument for examining the interior of the bladder
cystoscopy Tubular instrument for examining the inerior of the bladder
dialysis Method of filtration used when kidneys fail
diuretic Pharmacological agent that increases urination
dysuria Painful urination
edema Retention of water in cells, tissues, and cavities, sometimes due to kidney disease
end-stage-renal disease (ESRD) The last stage of kidney failure
enuresis Urinary incontinence
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) Breaking of kidney stones by using shock waves from outside the body
filtration Process of separating solids from a liquid by passing it through a porous substance
Foley catheter Indwelling catheter held in place by a balloon that inflates inside the bladder
glomerul(o) glomerulus
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidneys
glomerulus (pl. glomuleri) Group of capillaries in a nephron
glucose Form of sugar found in the blood; may indicate diabetes when found in the urine
hematuria Blood in the urine
hemodialysis Dialysis performed by passing blood through a filter outside the body and returning filtered blood to the body
hilum Portion of the kidney where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit
hydronephrosis Abnormal collection of urine in the kidneys due to a blockage
incontinence Inability to prevent excretion of urine or feces
indwelling Of a type of catheter inserted into a body
intracorporeal electrohydraulic lithotripsy Use of an endoscope to break up stones
ketone Substance that reults from the breakdown of fat; indicates diabetes of starvation when present in the urine
ketonuria Increased urinary excretion of ketones, usually indicative of diabetes or starvation
kidney Organ tha forms urine and reaborbs essentail substances back into the bloodstream
kidney failure Loss of kidney function
kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB) X-ray of three parts of the urinary system
lithotomy Surgical removal of bladder stones
meato meatus
meatotomy Surgical enlargement of the meatus
meatus External opening of a canal, such as the urethra
medulla Soft, central portion of the kidney
nephrectomy Removal of a kidney
nephritis Inflammation of the kidneys
nephro(o) kidney
nephroblastoma Malignant kidney tumor found primarily in young children; nephroblastoma
nephrolithotomy Surgical removal of a kidney stone
nephrolysis Removal of kidney adhersions
nephroma Any renal tumor
nephron Functional unit of a kidney
nephropexy Surgical fixing of a kidney to the abdominal wall
nephrorrhaphy Suturing of a damaged kidney
nephrosis Disorder caused by loss of protein in the urine
nephrostomy Establsihment of an opening from the renal pelvis to the outside of the body
nocturia Nighttime urination
oliguria Scanty urine production
peritoneal dialysis Type of dialysis in which liquid that extracts substances from blood is inserted into the peritoneal cavity and emptied outside the body
pH Measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution such as urine
phenylketones Substances that, if accumulated in the urine of infants, indicate phenylketonuria, a disease treated by diet
polycystic kidney disease Condition with many cysts on and within the kidneys
polyuria Excessive urination
prostate Gland surrounding the urethra in the male; active in ejaculation of semen
proteinuria Abnormal presence of protein in the urine
pyel(o) renal pelvis
pyelitis Inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyeloplasty Surgical repair of the renal pelvis
pyelotomy Incision into the renal pelvis
pyuria Pus in the urine
reabsorption Process of returning essential elements to the bloodstream after filtration
ren(o) Kidney
renal pelvis Collectin area for urine in the center of the kidney
renin Enzyme produced in the kidneys to regulate the filtration rate of blood by increasing blood pressure as necessary
renogram Radioactive imaging of kidney function after introduction of a substance that is filtered through the kidney while it is observed
resectoscope type of endoscope for removal of lesions
retrograde pyelogram X-ray of the bladder and ureters after a contrast medium is injected into the bladder
retroperitoneal Posterior to the peritoneum
specific gravity Measurement of the concentration of wastes, minerals, and solids in urine
trigon(o) trigone
trigone Triangular area at the base of the bladder through which the ureters enter and the urethra exits the bladder
ur(o) urin(o) urine
urea waste product of nitrogen metabolism excreted in normal adult urine
uremia Excess of urea and other wastes in the blood
ureter(o) ureter
ureterctomy Surgical removal of all or some of a ureter
ureteroplasty Surgical repair of a ureter
ureterorrhaphy Suturing of a ureter
urethr(o) urethra
urethra Tube through which urine is transported from the bladder ti the exterior of the body
urethropexy Surgical fixing of the urethra
urethroplasty Surgical repair of the urethra
urethrorrhaphy Suturing of the urethra
urethrostomy Establishment of an opening between the urethra and the exterior of the body
urethrotomy Surgical incision of a narrowing in the urethra
uric acid Nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
urinalysis Examination of the properties of urine
urinary bladder Organ where urine collects before being excreted from the body
urinary system body system that forms and excretes urine and helps in the reabsorption of essential substances
urinary tract infection Infection of the urinary tract
urine Fluid excreted by the urinary system
urology Medical specialty that diagnoses and treats the urinary system and the male reproductive system
urostomy Establishment of am opening in the abdomen to the exterior of the body for the release of urine
vesic(o) bladder
voiding (urinating) cystourethogram (VCU, VCUG) X-ray image made after indroduction of a contrast medium and while urination is taking place
Wilms' Tumor Malignant kidney tumor found primarily in young children; nephroblastoma
ADH antidiuretic hormone
A/G albumin/globulin
AGN acute glomerulonephritis
ARF acute renal failure
ATN acute tubular necrosis
BNO bladder neck obstruction
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Cath catheter
C1 chlorine
CRF chronic renal failure
cysto cystoscopy
ESRD end-stage renal disease
ESWL extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
HD hemodialysis
IVP intravenous pyelogram
K+ potassium
KUB kidney, ureter, bladder
Na+ sodium
pH power of hydrogen concentration
PKU phenylketonuria
RP retrograde pyelogram
SG specific gravity
UA urinalysis
UTI urinary tract infection
VCU, VCUG voiding cystourethrogram
abortion Premature ending of a pregnancy
abortifacient Medication to prevent implantation of an ovum
abruptio placnetae Breaking away of the placenta from the uterine wall
afterbirth Placenta and membranes that are expelled from the uterus afterbirth
amenoorrhea Lack of menstruation
amni(o) amnion
amniocentesis Removal of a sample of amniotic fluid through a needle injected in the amniotic sac
anovulation Lack of ovulation
anteflexion Bending forward, as of the uterus
areola Darkish area surrounding the nipple on a breast
aspiration Biopsy in which fluid is withdrawn through a needle by suction
Bartholin's gland One of two glands on either side of the vagina that secrete fluid into the vagina
birth control pills or implants Medication that controls the flow of hormones to block ovulation
body Middle portion of the uterus
carcinoma in situ Localized malignancy that has not spread
cauterization Removal or destruction of tissue using chemicals or devices, such as laser-guided equipment
cervic(o) cervix
cervicitis Inflammation of the cervix
cervix Protective part of uterus, located at the bottom and protruding through the vaginal wall; contains glands that secrete fluid into the vagina
chlamydia Sexually transmitted bacterial infection affecting various parts of the male or female reproductive systems; the bacterial agent itself
chorion Outermost membrane of the sac surrounding the fetus during gestation
climacteric Period of hormonal changes just prior to menopause
clitoris Primary organ of female sexual stimulation, located at the top of the labia minora
coitus Sexual intercourse
colp(o) vagina
colposcopy Examination of the vagina with colposcope
condom Contraceptive device consisting of a rubber or vinyl sheath placed over the penis or as lining that covers the vaginal canal that blocks contact between the sperm and the female sex organs
condyloma Growth on the external genitalia
conization Removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix for examination
contraception Method of controlling conception by blocking access or interrupting reproductive cycles; birth control
copulation Sexual intercourse
corpus luteum Structure formed after the graafian follicle fills with a yellow substance that secretes estrogen and progesterone
cryosurgery Removal or destruction of tissue using cold temperatures
culdocentesis Taking of a fluid sample from the base of the pelvic cavity to see if an ectopic pregnancy has ruptured
culdoscopy Examination of the pelvic cavity using an endoscope
diaphragm Contraceptive device that covers the cervix and blocks sperm from entering; used in conjunction with spermicide
dysmenorrhea Painful menstruation
dyspareunia Painful sexaul intercourse due to any of various conditions, such as cysts, infection, or dryness, in the vagina
endometriosis Abnormal condition in which uterine wall tissue is found in the pelvis or on the abdominal wall
endometrium Inner mucous layer of the uterus
episi(o) vulva
estrogen One of the primary female hormones produced by the ovaries
fallopian tube One of two tubes that lead from the ovaries to the uterus; uterine tube
fibroid Benign tumor commonly found in the uterus
fimbriae Hairlike ends of the uterine tubes that sweep the ovum into the uterus
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Hormone necessary for maturation of oocytes and ovulation
foreskin Fold of skin at the top of the labia minora
fundus Top portion of the uterus
galact(o) milk
gamete Sex cell; mature female sex cell produced by teh ovaries, which then travels to the uterus. If fertilized, it implants in the uterus; if not, it is released during menstruation to the outside of the body
gestation Period of fetal development in the uterus; usually about 40 weeks
gonad Male or female sex organ; one of two glands that produce ova
gonorrhea Sexually transmitted inflammation of the genital membranes
graafian follicle Follicle in the ovary that holds an oocyte during development and then releases it.
gravida Pregnant woman
gynec(o) Female
gynecologist Specialist who diagnoses and treats the processes and disorders of the female reproductive system
hormone Chemical secretion from glands such as the ovaries
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Treatment with hormones when the body stops or decreases the production of hormones by itself
hymen Fold of mucous membranes covering the vagina of a young female; usually ruptures during first intercourse
hyster(o) uterus
hysteroctomy Removal of the uterus
hysterosalpingography X-ray of the uterus and uterine tubes after a contrast medium has been injected
hysteroscopy Examination of the uterus using a hysteroscope
intrauterine device (IUD) Contraeceptive device consisting of a coil placed in the uterus to block implantation of a fertilized ovum
introitus External openings or entrance to a hollow organ, such as a vagina
isthmus Narrow region at the bottom of the uterus opening into the cervix
Kegal exercises Exercise to strengthen pubic muscles
labia majora Two folds of skin that form the borders of the vulva
labia minora Two folds of skin between the labia majora
lact(o), lacti milk
lactation Production of milk from the breasts following delivery
lactiferous Producing milk
laparoscopy Use of a lighted tubular instrument inserted through a woman's naval to perform a tubal ligation or to examine the fallopian tubes
leukorrhea Abnormal vaginal discharge; usually whitish
lumpectomy Removal of a breast tumor
luteinizing hormone (LH) Hormone essential ot ovulation
mamm(o) breast
mammary glands Glandular tissue that forms the breasts, which respond to cycles of menstuation and birth
mammography X-ray imaging of the breast as a cancer screening method
mammoplasty Plastic surgery to reconstruct the breast, particularly after a mastectomy
mast(o) breast
mastectomy Removal of a breast
mastitis Inflammation of the breast
mastopexy Surgical procedure to attach sagging breasts in a more normal postion
men(o) menstruation
menarche First menstruation
menometrorrhagia Irregular or excessive bleeding between or during menstruation
menopause Time when menstruation ceases; usually between ages 45 and 55
menorrhagia Excessive menstrual bleeding
menstruation Cyclical release of uterine lining through the vagina; usually every 28 days
metr(o) uterus
metrorrhagia Uterine bleeding between menstrual periods
miscarriage Spontaneous, premature ending of a pregnancy
mons pubis Mound of soft tissue in the external genitalia covered by pubic hair after puberty
morning-after pill Medication to prevent implantation of an ovum
myomectomy Removal of fibroids from the uterus
myonmetrium Middle layer of muscle tissue of the uterus
nipple Projection of the apex of the breast through which milk flows during lactation
oo egg
obstetrician Physician who specializes in pregnancy and childbirth care
oligomenorrhea Scanty menstrual period
oligo-ovulation Irregular ovulation
oocyte Immature ovum produced in the gonads
oophor(o) ovary
oophorectomy Removal of an ovary
ov(i), ov(o) egg
ovari(o) ovary
ovulation Release of an ovum(or rarely, more than one ovum) as part of monthly cycle that leads to fertilization or menstruation
ovum (pl. ova) Mature female sex cell produced by the ovaries, which then travels to the uterus. If fertilized, it implants in the uterus; if not, it is released during menstruation to the outside of the body
oxytocin Hormone given to induce labor
Papanicolaou smear Gathering of cells from the cervix and vagina to abserve for abnormalities
para Woman who has given birth to one or more viable infants
parturition Birth
pelvimetry Measurement of the pelvis during pregnancy
perimenopause Three-to-five-year period of decreasing estrogen levels prior to menopause
perimetrium Outer layer of the uterus
perine(o) perineum
perineum Space between the labia majora and the anus
placenta Nutrient-rich organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy; supplies nutrients to the fetus
placenta previa Placement of the placenta so it blocks the birth canal
preclampsia Toxic infection during pregnancy
progesterone One of the primary female hormones
puberty Pre-teen or early teen period when secondary sex characteristics develop and menstruation begins
retroflexion Bending backward of the uterus
retroversion Backward turn of the uterus
salping(o) fallopian tube
salpingectomy Removal of a fallopian tube
salpingitis Inflammation of the fallopian tube
salpingotomy Incision into the fallopian tube
sinus Space between the lactiferous ducts and the nipple
spermicide Contraceptive chemical that destroys sperm; usually in cream or jelly form
sponge Polyurethane contraceptive device filled with spermicide and placed in vagina near cervix
syphilis Sexually transmitted acute infection
tocolytic agent Hormone given to stop labor
umbilical cord Cord that connects the placenta in the mother's uterus to the navel of the fetus during gestation for nourishment of the fetus
uter(o) uterus
uterine tube One of two tubes through which ova travel from an ovary to the uterus
uterus Female reproductive organ; site of implantation after fertilization or release of the lining during menstruation
vagin(o) vagina
vaginitis Inflammation of the vagina
vulv(o) vulva
vulva External female genitalia
AB abortion
AFP alpha fetoprotein
AH abdominal hysterectomy
CIS caricinoma in situ
CS caesarean section
C-section caesarean section
Cx cervix
D&C dilation and curettage
DES diethylsilbestrol
DUB dysfunctional uterine bleeding
ECC endocervical curettage
EDC expected date of confinement
EMB endometrial biopsy
ERT estrogen replacement therapy
FHT fetal heart tones
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
G gravida (pregnancy)
gyn gynecology
HCG human chorionic gonadotropin
HRT hormone replacement therapy
HSG hysterosalpingography
HSO hysterosalpingoophorectomy
IUD intrauterine device
LH luteinizing hormone
LMP last menstrual period
multip multiparous
OB obstetrics
OCP oral contraceptive pill
P para (live birth)
Pap smear Papanicolaou smear
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
PMP previous menstrual period
PMS premenstrual syndrome
primip primiparous
TAH-BSO total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salping oophorectomy
TSS toxic shock syndrome
UC uterine contractions
anabolic steriods Prescription drug abused by some athletes to increase muscle mass
andr(o) men
anorchism, anorchia Congenital absence of one or both testicles
aspermia Inability to produce sperm
azoospermia Semen without living sperm
balan(o) glans penis
balanitis Inflammation of the glans penis
bulbourethral gland One of two glands below the prostate that secrete a fluid to lubricate the inside of the urethra
castration Removal of the testicles
chancroids Bacterial infection that can be sexually transmitted; results in sores on the penis, urethra, or anus
circumcision Removal of the foreskin
Cowper's gland One of two glands below the prostate that secretes a fluid to lubricate the inside of the urethra
cryptorchism Birth defect with the failure of one or both of the testicles to descend in to the scrotal sac
ejaculation Expulsion of semen outside the body
epididym(o) epididymis
epididymectomy Removal of an epididymis
epididymis Group of ducts at the top of the testis where sperm are stored
epididymitis Inflammation of the epididymis
epispadias Birth defect with abnormal opening of the urethra on the top side of the penis
flagellum Tail at the end of a sperm that helps it move.
foreskin Flap of skin covering the glans penis; removed by circumcision in many cultures
glans penis Sensitive area at the tip of the penis
hernia Abnormal protrusion of tissue through muscle that contains it
hydrocele Fluid-containing hernia of the testis
hypospadias Birth defect with abnormal opening of the urethra on the bottom side of the penis
impotence Inability to maintain an erection for ejaculation
infertility Inability to fertilize ova
oligospermia Scanty production of sperm
orch(o), orchi(o), orchid(o) testes
orchidectomy Removal of a testicle
orchiectomy Removal of a testicle
penis Male reproductive part that covers the urethra on the outside of the body
perineum Area between the penis and the anus
Peyronie's disease Abnormal curvature of the penis caused by hardening in the interior of the penis
phimosis Abnormal narrowing of the opening of the foreskin
prostat(o) prostate gland
prostate gland Gland surrounding the urethra that emits fluid to help sperm move and contracts its muscular tissue during ejaculation to help the sperm exit the body
prostatectomy Removal of the prostate
prostate-specific antigen test Blood test for prostate cancer
prostatitis Inflammation of the prostate
scrotum Sac outside the body containing the testicles
semen Thick, whitish fluid containing spermatozoa and secretions from the seminal vesicles, Cowper's glands, and prostate; ejaculated from the penis
semen analysis Observation of semen for viability of sperm
seminoma Malignant tumor of the testicles
sperm Male sex cell that contains chromosomes
sperm(o) spermat(o) sperm
spermatozoon (pl. spermatozoa) Male sex cell that contains chromosomes
testicles Male organ that produces sperm and is contained in the scrotum
testis (pl. testes) Male organ that produces sperm and is contained in the scrotum
testosterone Primary male hormone
urethrogram X-ray of the urethra and prostate
varicocele Enlargement of veins of the spermatic cord
vas deferens Narrow tube through which sperm leave the epididymis and travel to the seminal vesicles and into the urethra
vasectomy Removal of part of the vas deferens to prevent conception
vasovasostomy Reversal of a vasectomy
AIH artificial insemination homogous
BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy
PED penile erectile dysfunction
PSA prostate-specific antigen
SPP suprapibic prostatectomy
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate
agglutin(o) agglutinin
agglutination Clumping of cells and particles in blood
agglutinogen Substance that causes agglutination
agranulocyte Leukocyte with nongranular cytoplasm
albumin Simple protein found in plasma
anemia Condition in which red blood cells do not transport enough oxygen to the tissues
anisocytosis Condition with abnormal variation in the size of red blood cells
anticoagulant Agent that prevents formation of blood clots
antiglobulin test Test for antibodies on red blood cells
basophil Leukocyte containing heparin and histamine and performing a phagocytic function
basophilia Condition with an increased number of basophils in the blood
biochemistry panel Common group of automated tests run on one blood sample
blood Fluid (containing plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets) circulated throughout the arteries, veins, capillaries, and heart
blood chemistry Test of plasma for presence of a particular substance such as glucose
blood culture Test of a blood specimen in a culture medium to observe for particular mocroorganisms
blood indices Measurement of the characteristics of red blood cells
blood types or groups Classification of blood according to its antigen and anitbody qualities
bone marrow biopsy Extraction of bone marrow, by means of a needle for observation
bone marrow transplant Injection of donor bone marrow into a patient whose diseased cells have been killed through radiation and chemotherapy
chemistry profile test of plasma for presence of a particular substance such as glucose
coagulant Clotting agent
coagulation Changing of a liquid, especially blood, into a semi-solid
complete blood count (CBC) Most common blood test for a number of factors
dyscrasia Any disease with abnormal particles in the blood
electrophoresis Process of separating particles in a solution by passing electricity through the liquid
eosino eosinophil
eosinophil Type of granulocyte
eosinophilia Condition with an abnormal number of eosinophils in the blood
erythr(o) red
erythroblastosis fetalis Incompatibility disoreder between a mother with Rh negative and a fetus with Rh positive
erythrocyte Mature red blood cell
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Test for rate at which red blood cells fall through plasma
erythropenia Disorder with abnormally low number of red blood cells
erythropoietin Hormone released by the kidneys to stimulate red blood cell production
fibrin clot Clot-forming threads formed at the site of an injury during coagulation where platelets clump together with various other substances
fibrinogen Protein in plasma that aids in clotting
gamma globulin Globulin that arises in lymphatic tissue and functions as part of the immune system
globin Protein molecule; in blood, a part of hemoglobin
granulocyte Leukocyte with granular cytoplasm
granulocytosis Condition with abnormal number of granulocytes in the bloodstream
hematocrit Measure of the percentage of red blood cells in a blood sample
hematocytoblast Most immature blood cell
heme Pigment containing iron in hemoglobin
hemo hemat(o) blood
hemochromatosis Hereditary condition with excessive iron buildup in the blood
hemoglobin Protein in red blood cells essential to the transport of oxygen
hemolsis Disorder with breakdown of red blood cell membranes
hemophilia Hereditary disorder with lack of clotting factor in the blood
hemostatic Agent that stops bleeding
heparin Substance in blood that prevents clotting
histamine Substance released by basophils and eosinophils; involved in allergic reations
leuk(o) white
leukocyte Mature white blood cell
lymphocyte Type of agranulocyte
macrocytosis Disorder with abnormally large red blood cells
megakaryocyte Large cells in red bone barrow that form platelets
microcytosis Disorder with abnormally small red blood cells
monocyte Type of agranulocyte
multiple myeloma Malignant tumor of the bone marrow
myeloblast Immature granulocytes
neurtrophil Type of leukocyte; granulocyte
pancytopenia Condition with low number of blood components
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) Test for ability of blood to coagulate
phag(o) eating, devouring
phlebotomy Insertion of a needle into a vein, usually for the purpose of extracting a blood sample
plasma Liquid portion of unclotted blood
plasmapheresis Process of removing blood from a person, centrifuging it, and returning only red blood cells to that person
platelet Thrombocyte; part of a megakaryocyte that initiates clotting
platelet count (PLT) Measurement of number of platelets in a blood samples
poikilocytosis Disorder with irregularly shaped red blood cells
polycythemia Disorder with abnormal increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin
prothrombin time (PT) Test ability of blood to coagulate
purpura Condition with multiple, tiny hemorrhages under the skin
red blood cell One of the solid parts of blood formed from stem cells and having hemoglobin within; erythrocyte
red blood cell count Measurement of red blood cells in a cubic millimeter of blood
red blood cell morphology Observation of shape of red blood cells
relapse Recurrence of a disease
remission Disappearance of a disease for a time
reticulocytosis Disorder with an abnormal number of immature erthrocytes
Rh factor Type of antigen in blood that can cause a transfusion reaction
Rh-negative Lacking Rh factor on surface of blood cells
Rh-positive Having Rh factor on surface on blood cells
sedimentation rate (SR) Test for rate at which red blood cells fall through plasma
serum The liquid left after blood had clotted
SMA (sequential multiple analyzer) Original blood chemistry machine; now a synonym for blood chemistry
stem cell Immature cell formed in bone marrow that becomes differentiated into either a red or a white blood cell
thalassemia Hereditary disorder characterized by inability to produce sufficient hemoglobin
thromb(o) blood clot
thrombin Enzyme that helps in clot formation
thrombocyte Platelet; cell fragment that produces thrombin
thrombocytopenia Bleeding condition with insufficient production of platelets
thrombolytic Agent that disolves blood clots
thromboplastin Protein that aids in forming a fibrin clot
transfusion Injection of donor blood into a person needing blood
venipucture Insertion of a needle into a vein, usually for the purpose of extracting a blood sample
von Willebrand's disease Hemorrhagic disorder with tendency to bleed from mucous membranes
white blood cell One of the solid parts of blood from stem cells that plays a role in defense against disease; leukocyte
APTT activated partial thromboplastin time
baso basophil
BCP biochemistry panel
BMT bone marrow transplant
CBC complete blood count
diff differential blood count
eos eosinophils
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
G-CSF Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GM-CSF Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor
HCT, Hct hematocrit
HGB, Hgb, HB hemoglobin
MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin
MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
MCV mean corpuscular volume
mono monocyte
PCV packed cell volume
PLT platelet count
PMN, poly polymorphonuclear neurtrophil
PT prothrombin time
PTT partial thromboplastin time
RBC red blood cell count
SR; sed,rate sedimentation rate
seg segmented mature white blood cells
WBC white blood cell count
acquired active immunity Resistance to a disease acquired naturally or developed by previous exposure or vaccination
acquired passive immunity Inoculation against disease or poison, using antitoxins or antibodies from or in another person or another species
acquired immunodeficiency disease AIDS
aden(o) gland
allergen Substance to which exposure causes an allergic reaction
allergy Production of IgE antibodies against an allergen
anaphylaxis Life-threatening allergic reaction
anntibody Specialized protein that fights disease
antigen any substance in the bloodstream that can provoke an immune response
antitoxin Antibodies directed against a particular disease or poison
autoimmune disease Any of a number of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma, caused by an autoimmune response
autoimmune response Overactivity in the immune system against oneself causing destruction of one's own healthy cells
cell-mediated immunity Resistance to disease mediated by T cells
cytotoxic cell T cell that helps in destruction of infected cells throught out the body
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA, ELISA) Test used to screen blood for the presence of antibodies to different viruses or bacteria
gamma globulin Antibodies given to prevent or lessen certain diseases
helper cell t cell that stimulates the immune response
histiocytic lymphoma Lymphoma with malignant cells that resemble histiocytes
Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease Type of lymph cancer of uncertain origin that generally appears in early adulthood
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Virus that causes AIDS; spread by sexual contact and exchange of body fluids
humoral immunity Resistance to disease provided by plasma cells and anitbody production
hypersensitivity Abnormal reaction to an allergen
hypersplenism Overactive spleen
immun(o) immunity
immunity Resistance to particular pathogens
immunoglobulin Type of antibody
immunosuppressive disease Disease that flourishes because of lowered immune response
infectious mononucleosis Acute infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
interferon Protein produced by T cells and other cells; destroys disease-causing cells with its antiviral properties
interleukin Protein produced by T cells; helps regulates immune system
lymph Fluid containing white blood cells and toher substances that flows in the lymphactic vessels
lymph(o) lymph
lymphaden(o) lymph nodes
lymphadenectomy Removal of a lymph node
lymphadenopathy Swollen lymph nodes
lymphadenotomy Incision into a lymph nodes
lymphangi(o) lymphatic vessels
lymph node Specialized organ that produces lymphocytes and filters harmful substances from the tissues
lymph node dissection Removal of a cancerous node for microscopic examination
lymphocytes Lymph cells
lymphocytic lymphoma Lymphoma with malignant cells that resemble large lymphocytes
lymphoma Cancer of the lymph nodes
macrophage Special cell that devours foreign substances
metastasis Spread of a cancer from a localized area
natural immunity Inherent resistance to disease found in a species, race, family group, or certain individuals
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Cancer of the lymph nodes with some cells resembling healthy cells and spreading in a diffuse pattern
opportunistic infection Infection that takes hold because of lowered immune response
pathogen Disease-causing agent
phagocytosis Ingestion of foreign substances by specialized cells
plasma cell Specialized cells that develop in the thymus and are responsible for cellular immunity
retrovirus Type of virus that spreads by using DNA in the body to help it replicate its RNA
sarcoidosis Inflammation condition with lesions on the lymph nodes and other organs
spleen Organ of lymph system that filters, stores, removes, blood, and activates lymphocytes
splen(o) spleen
splenectomy Removal of the spleen
splenomegaly Enlarged spleen
suppressor cell t cell that suppresses B cells and other immune cells
T cells Specialized cells that develop in the thymus and are responsible for cellular immunity
thym(o) thymus
thymectomy Removal of the tyhmus gland
thymocyte Cell of the thymus gland that can mature into a T cell
thymoma Tumor of the thymus gland
thymosin Hormone secreted by the thymus gland that aids in distribution of thymocytes
thymus gland Soft gland with two lobes that is involved in immune response; located in mediastinum
T lymphocytes Specialized cells that develop in the thymus and are responsible for cellular immunity
tox(o), toxi, toxico poison
vaccination vaccine Injection of an antigen from a different organism to cause active immunity
Western blot Test primarily used to check for antibodies to HIV in serum
AIDS acquired immunodenficiency syndrome
ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia
AML acute myelogenous leukemia
AZT Azidothymidine
CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML chronic myelogenous leukemia
CMV cytomegalovirus
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
EIS, ELISA Enzyme-linked immonuosorbent assay
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HSV herpse simples virus
IgA immunoglobulin A
IgD immunoglobulin D
IgE immunoglobulin E
IgG immunoglobulin G
IgM immunoglobulin M
PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
ZDV Zidovudine
abdominocentesis Incision into the abdomen to remove fluid
absorption Passing of nutrients into the bloodstream
achalasia Inability of a muscle, particularly the cardiac sphincter, to relax
achlorhydria Lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
alimentary canal Muscular tube from the mouth to the anus; digestive tract; gastrointestinal tract
amino acid Chemical compound that results from digestion of complex proteins
amylase Enzyme that is part of pancreatic juice and saliva and that begins the digestion of carbohydrates
anal canal Part of the digestive tract extending from the rectum to the anus
anal fistula Small opening in the anal canal through which waste matter can leak
anal fistulectomy Removal of an anal fistula
anastomosis Surgical union of two hollow structures
ankyloglossia Conditon of the tongue being partially or completely attached to the bottom of the mouth
an(o) anus
anorexia Eating disorder with extreme weight loss
antacid Agent that neutralizes stomach acid
antidiarrheal Agent that controls loose, watery stools
antiemetic Agent that prevents vomiting
antispasmodic Agent that controls intestinal tract spasms
anus Place at which feces exit the body
aphagia Inability to swallow
append(o), appendic(o) appendix
appendage Any body part (inside or outside) either subordinate or to a larger part or having no specific central function
appendectomy Removal of the appendix
appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix
appendix Wormlike appendage to the cecum
ascites Fluid buildup in the abdominal and peritoneal cavities
bil(o), bili bile
bile Yellowish-brown to greenish fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in fat digestion
bilirubin Pigment contained in bile
Billroth's I Excision of the pylorus
Billroth's II Resection of the pylorus with the stomach
body Middle section of the stomach
bowel Intestine
bucc(o) cheek
bulimia Eating disorder with binging and purging
cathartic Laxative
cec(o) cecum
cecum Pouch at the top of the large intestine connected to the bottom of the ileum
celi(o) abdomen
cheeks Walls of the oral cavity
cheilitis Inflammation of the lips
cheiloplasty Repair of the lips
chol(o), cholo bile
cholangi(o) bile vessel
cholangiography X-ray of the bile ducts
cholangitis Inflammation of the bile ducts
cholecyst(o) gallbladder
cholecystectomy Removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis Inflammation of the gallbladder
cholecystography X-ray of the gallbladder
choledoch(o) common bile duct
choledocholithotomy Removal of stones from the common bile duct
cholelithiasis Gallbladder in the bladder
cholelithotomy Removal of gallstones
cholelithotripsy Breaking up or crushing of stones in the body especially gallstones
chyme Semisolid mass of partially digested food and gastric juices that passes from the stomach to the small intestines
cirrhosis Liver disease, usually caused by alcoholism
col(o), colon(o) colon
colectomy Removal of the colon
colic Gastrointestinal distress, especially of infants
colitis Inflammation of the colon
colon Major portion of the large intestine
colonoscopy Examination of the colon using an endoscope
colostomy Creation of an opening from the colon into the abdominal wall
constipation Difficult or infrequent defecation
Crohn's disease Type of irritable bowel disease with no ulcers
defecation Release of feces from the anus
deglutition Swallowing
diarrhea Loose, watery stool
digestion Conversion of food into nutrients for the body and into waste products for release from the body
diverticula Small pouches in the intestinal walls
diverticulitis Inflammation of the diverticula
diverticulosis Condition in which the diverticula trap food or bacteria
duoden(o) duodenum
duodenal ulcer Ulcer of the duodenum
duodenum Top part of the small intestine where chyme mixes with bile, pancreatic juices, and intestinal juice to continue the digestive process
dysentery Irritation of the intestinal tract with loose stool
dyspepsia Indigestion
dysphagia Difficulty is swallowing
emesis Backward flow from the normal direction
emulsification Breaking down of fats
enter(o) intestines
enteritis Inflammation of the small intestine
enzyme Protein that causes chemical changes in substances in the digestive tract
epoglottis Movable flap of tissue that covers the trachea
eructation Belching
esophag(o) esophagus
esophagitis Inflammation of the esophagus
esophagoplasty Repair of the esophagus
esophagoscopy Examination of the esophagus with an esophagoscope
esophagus Part of alimentary canal from the pharynx to the stomach
fatty acid Acid derived from fat during the digestive process
feces Semisolid waste that moves through the large intestine to the anus, where it is released from the body
fistula Abnormal opening in tissue
flatulence Gas in the stomach or intestines
flatus Gas in the lower intestinal tract that can be released through the anus
frenulum Mucous membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
fundus Upper portion of the stomach
gallbladder Organ on lower surface of liver; stores bile
gallstones Calculi in the gallbladder
gastrectomy Removal of part or all of the stomach
gastric resection Removal of part of the stomach and repair of the remaining part
gastritis Inflammation of the stomach
gastr(o) stomach
gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
gastroscopy Examination of the stomach using of an endoscope
gloss(o) tongue
glossectomy Removal of the tongue
glossitis Inflammation of the tongue
glossorrhaphy Suture of the tongue
gluc(o) glucose
glucose Sugar found in fruits and plants and in various parts of the body
glyc(o) sugar
glycogen(o) glycogen
glycogen Starch that can be converted into glucose
gums Fleshy sockets that hold the teeth and aid in chewing
halitosis Foul mouth odor
hard palate Hard anterior portion of the palate at the roof of the mouth
hematemesis Blood in vomit
hematochezia Red blood in stool
hemorrhoidectomy Removal of hemorrhoids
hemorrhoids Swollen,twisted veins in the anus
hepat(o) liver
hepatic lobectomy Removal of one ore move lobes of the liver
hepatitis Inflammation or disease of the liver
hepatomegaly Enlarged liver
hepatopathy Liver disease
hiatal hernia Protrusion of the stomach through an opening in the diaphragm
hyperbilirubinemia Excessive bilirubin in the blood
icterus Jaundice
ile(o) ileum
ileitis Inflammation of the ileum
ileostomy Creation of an opening into the ileum
ileus Intestinal blockage
intussusception Prolapse of an intestinal part into a neighboring part
jaundice Excessive bilirubin in the blood causing yellowing of the skin
jejun(o) jejunum
jejunum Middle section of the small intestine
labi(o) lip
large intestine Passageway in intestinal tract for waste received from small intestine to be excreted through the anus; alos, place where water reabsorption takes place
laxative Agent that softens stool to relieve constipation
lingu(o) tongue
lingual tonsils Two mounds of lymph tissue at the back of the tongue
lipase Enzyme contained in pancreatic juice
lips Two muscular folds formed around the outside boundary of the mouth
liver Organ important in digestive and metabolic functions; secretes bile
liver biopsy Removal of a small amount of liver tissue to examine for disease
mastication Chewing
melena Old blood in the stool
mesentery Membranous tissue that attaches small and large intestines to the muscular wall at the dorsal part of the abdomen
mouth Cavity in the face in which food and water is ingested
nausea Sick feeling in the stomach
obesity Abnormal accumulation of fat in the body
or(o) mouth
palatine tonsils Mounds of tissue on either side of the pharynx
pancreas Digestive organ that secretes digestive fluids; endocrine gland that regulates blood sugar
pancreat(o) pancreas
pancreatectomy Removal of the pancreas
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
papilla (pl. papillae) Tiny projection on the superior surface of the tongue that contains taste buds
paracentesis Incision into the intestinal tract
parotitis, parotiditis Inflammation of the parotid gland
pepsin Digestive enzyme of gastric juice
peptic ulcer Sore on the mucous membrane if the digestive system; stomach ulcer or gastric ulcer
perisalsis Coordinated, rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle that force food through the digestive tract
periton(eo) peritoneum
peritoneoscopy Examination of the abdominal cavity using a peritoneoscope
peritonitis Inflammtion of the peritoneum
pharyng(o) pharynx
pharynx Tube through which food passes to the esophagus
polypectomy Removal of polyps
polyposis Condition with polyps, as in the intestines
proct(o) anus, rectum
proctitis Inflammation of the rectum and anus
proctoplasty Repair of the rectum and anus
proctoscopy Examination of the rectum and anus using a proctoscope
pylor(o) pylorus
pylorus Narrowed bottom part of the stomach
rect(o) rectum
rectum Bottom portion of large intestine; connected to anal canal
reflux Backward flow from the normal direction
regurgitation Backward flow from the normal direction
rugae Folds in stomach lining
salvia Fluid secreted by salivary glands
salivary glands Glans in the mouth that secrete fluids that aid in breaking down food
sial(o) saliva, salivary glands
sialaden(o) salivary glands
sialoadenitis Inflammation of the salivary glands
simoid(o) simoid colon
sigmoid colon S-shaped part of large intestine connecting at the bottom to the rectum
simoidoscopy Examination of the sigmoid colon using a sigmoidoscope
small intestine Twenty-foot long tube that continues the process of digestion started in the stomach; place where most absorption takes place
soft palate Soft posterior part of the palate in the mouth
steat(o) fats
steatorrhea Fat in the blood
stomat(o) mouth
stomach Large sac between the esophagus and small intestine; place where food is broken down
stool Feces
throat Pharynx
tongue Fleshy part of the mouth that moves food during mastication
ulcerative colitis Inflammation of the colon with ulcers
uvula Cone-shaped projection hanging down from soft palate
villus (pl. villi) Tiny fingerlike projection on the lining of the small intestine with capillaries through which digested nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream and lymphatic system
volvulus Intestinal blockage caused by the intestine twisting on itself
ALT, AT alanine transaminase
AST aspartic acit transaminase
BE barium enema
BM bowel movement
EGD esophagogastroduedenoscopy
ERCP endoscopic rertograde cholangiopancreatography
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
IBD inflammatory bowel disease
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
NG nosogastric
NPO nothing by mouth (Latin nul per os)
SGOT serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
SGPT serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase
TPN total parenteral nutrition
UGI(S) upper gastrointestinal (series)
acidosis Abnormal release of ketones in the body
acromegaly Abnormally enlarged features resulting from a pituitary tumor and hypersecretion of growth hormone
Adam's apple Protrusion in the neck caused by a fold of thyroid cartilage
Addison's disease Inderactivity of the adrenal glands
aden(o) gland
adenectomy Removal of a gland
adenohyophysis Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
adren(o), adrenal(o) adrenal glands
adrenal cortex Outer portion of the adrenal gland; helps control metobolism, inflammation, sodium and potassium retention, and effects of stress
adrenalectomy Removal of an adrenal gland
adrenaline Epinerphrine; secreted by adrenal medulla
adrenal medulla Inner portion of adrenal glands; releases large quanties of hormones during stress
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Hormone secreted by anterior pituitary; involved in the control of the adrenal cortex
aldosterone Hormone secreted by adrenal cortex; mineralocorticoid; affects electrolyte and fluid balance
alpha cells Specialized cells that produce glucagon in the pancreas
androgen Any male hormone, such as testosterone
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Posterior pituitary hormone that increases water reabsorption; decreases urine output
antihyperglycemic Agent htat lowers blood glucose
antihyopglycemic Agent that raised blood glucose
beta cells Specialized cells that produce insulin in the pancreas
blood sugar, blood glucose Test for glucose in blood
calcitonin Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland and othe endocrine glands; help control blood calcium levels
catecholamines Hormones, such as epinephrine, released in response to stress
corticosteroids Steroids produced by the adrenal cortex
cortisol Hydrocortisone
Cushing's syndrome Group of symptoms caused by overactivity of the adrenal glands
diabetes Endocrine disorder with abnormally low levels of insulin; also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
diabetes Disease caused by failure of the body to recognize insulin that is present or by abnormally low leve of insulin; also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); usually adult onset
diabetes insipidus Condition caused by hyposecretion of anditiuretic hormone
diabetes mellitus Endocrine disorder with abnormally low levels of insulin; also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
diabetes mellitus Disease caused by failure of the body to recognize insulin that is present or by abnormally low leve of insulin; also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); usually adult onset
diabetic nephropathy Kidney disease due to diabetes
diabetic neuropathy Loss of sensation in the extremities due to diabetes
diabetic retinopathy Gradual loss of vision due to diabetes
ductless gland Endocrine gland
dwarfism Abnormally stunted growth caused by hyposecretion of growth hormone, congenital lack of a thyroid gland, or genetic defect
electrolyte Any substance that conducts electricity and is decomposed by it
endocrine gland Gland that secretes substances into the bloodstream instead of into ducts
epinephrine Hormone released by the adrenal medulla in response to stress; adrenaline
exocrine gland Any gland that releases substances through ducts to a specific location
exophthalmos Abnormal protrusion of the eyes typical of Grave's disease
fasting blood sugar Test for glucose in blood following a fast for 12 hours
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Hormone released by the anterior pituitary to aid in production of ova and sperm
gigantism Abnormally fast and large growth caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone
gland Any organized mass of tissue secreting or excreting substances
gluc(o) glucose
glucogan Hormone released by the pancreas to increase blood sugar
glucocorticoid Hormone released by the adrenal cortex
glucose tolerance test (GTT) Blood test for body's ability to metabolize carbohydratyes; taken after 12-hour fast, then repeated every hour for 4 to 6 hours after ingestion of a sugar solution
glucosuria Glucose in the urine
glyc(o) glycogen
glycogen Converted glucose stored in the liver for future use
glycosuria Glucose in the urine
goiter Abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland as a result of its overactivity or lack of iodine in the diet
gonad(o) sex glands
Grave's disease Overactivity of the thyroid gland
growth hormone (GH) Hormone released by anterior pituitary
hirsutism Abnormal hair growth due to an excess of androgens
hormone Substance secreted by glands and carried in the bloodstream to various parts of the body
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Ingestion of hormones to replace missing or low levels of needed hormones
hyperadrenalism Overactivity of the adrenal glands
hyperparathyroidism Overactivity of the parathyroid glands
hypersecretion Abnormally high secretion, as from a gland
hyperthyroidism Overactivity of the thyroid gland
hypoadrenalism Underactivity of the adrenal gland
hypoglycemia Abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
hypoglycemic Agent that lowers blood glucose
hypoparathyroidism Underactivity of the parathyroid glands
hypophysectomy Removal of the pituitary gland
hypophysis Pituitary gland
hyposecretion Abnormally low secretion, as from a gland
hypothalamus Gland in the nervous system that releases hormones to aid in regulating pituitary hormones
hypothyroidism Underactivity of the thyroid gland
inhibiting Preventin the secretion of other hormones
insulin Substance released by the pancreas to lower blood sugar; helps transport glucose to cells and decrease blood sugar
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Endocrine disorder with abnormally low levels of insulin; also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
islets of Langerhans Specialized cells in the pancreas that release insulin and glucagon
isthmus Narrow band of tissue connecting the two lobes of the thyroid gland
ketoacidosis Condition of high acid levels caused by the abnormal release of ketones in the body
ketosis Condition caused by the abnormal release of ketones in the body
luteinizing hormone (LH) Hormone release to aid in maturation of ova and ovulation
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Hormone released by the pituitary gland
melatonin Hormone released by the pineal gland; affects sexual function and sleep patterns
mineralocorticoid Steroid secreted by adrenal cortex
myxedema Advanced adult hypothyroidism
neurohyophysis Posterior lobe of pituitary gland
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) Disease caused by failure of the body to recognize insulin that is present or by abnormally low leve of insulin; also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); usually adult onset
norepinephrine Hormone secreted by adrenal medulla
ovary One of two female reproductive glands that secrete hormones in the endocrine system
oxytocin Hormones released by the posterior pituitray gland to aid in uterine contractions and lactation
pancrease Gland of both the endocrine system (blood sugar control) and the digestive system (as an exocrine gland)
pancreat(o) pancreas
pancreatectomy Removal of the pancreas
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
parathormone (PTH) Parathroid hormone
parathyroid(o) parathyroid
parathyroidectomy Removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands
parathyroid gland One of four glands located adjacent to the thyroid gland on its dorsal surface that help maintain levels of blood calcium
parathyroid hormone Hormone released by parathyroid glands help raise blood calcium levels
pineal gland Gland located above pituitary gland; secretes melatonin
pituitary gland Major endocrine gland; secretes hormones essential to metabolic functions
polydipsia Excessive thirst
polyuria Excessive amount of water in the urine
postprandial blood sugar Test glucose in blood, usually about two hours after a meal
radioactive immunoassay (RIA) Test for measuring hormone levels in plasma; taken after radioactive solution is ingested
radioactive iodine therapy Use of radioactive iodine to eliminate thyroid tumors
radioactive iodine uptake Test for how quickly the thyroid gland pulls in ingested iodine
receptor Part of a target cell with properties compatible with a particular substance (hormone)
releasing Allowing secretion of other hormones
somatotrophic hormone (STH) Hormone secreted by anterior pituitary glands; important in growth and development
steroid A hormone or chemical substance released by several endocrine glands or manufactured in various medications
suprarenal gland Adrenal gland
sympathomimetic Mimicking functions of th esympathetic nervous system
syndorme of inappropiate ADH (SIADH) Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone
target cell Cell with receptors that are compitable with specific hormones
testis, testicle One of two male organs that secretes hormones in the endocrine system
tetany Muscle paralysis, usually due to decreased levels of ionized calcium in the blood
thymectomy Removal of the thymus gland
thymus gland Gland that is part of the immune system as well as part of the endocrine system; aids in the maturation of T and B cells
thyr(o) thyroid(o) thyroid gland
thyroidectomy Removal of the thyroid
thyroid function test or study Test for levels for TSH, T3 and T4 in blood plasma to determine thyroid function
thyroid gland Gland with two lobes located on either side of the trachea; helps control blood calcium levels and metabolic function
thyroid scan Imaging test for thyroid abnormalities
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates release of thyroid hormones
thyrotoxicosis Overactivtiy of the thyroid gland
thyroxine (T4) Compound found in or manufactured for thyroid gland; helps regulate metabolism
triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroid hormone that stimulates growth
Type I diabetes Endocrine disorder with abnormally low levels of insulin; also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
Type II diabetes Disease caused by failure of the body to recognize insulin that is present or by abnormally low leve of insulin; also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); usually adult onset
urine sugar Test for diabetes; determined by presence of ketones or sugar in urine
vasopressin Hormone secreted by pituitary gland; raises blood pressure
virilism Condtion with excessive androgen production, often resulting in the appearance of mature male characteristics in young children
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH antidiuretic hormone
CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone
DM diabetes mellitus
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
GTT glucose tolerance test
HCG human chorionic gonadotropin
IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
LH luteinizing hormone
MSH melanocyte stimulating hormone
NIDDM noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
PRL prolactin
PTH parathyroid hormone, parathormone
STH somatotropin hormone
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
aerotitis media Inflammation of the middle ear caused by air pressure changes; as in air travel
anacusis Loss of hearing
aphakia Absence of lens
asthenopia Weakness of the ocular or ciliary muscle that causes the eyes to tire easily
astigmatism Distortion of sight because of lack of focus of light rays at one point on the retina
audi(o), audit(o) hearing
audiogram Graph that plots the acoustic frequencies being tested
audiologist Specialist in evaluating hearing function
audiometry Measurement of acoustic frequencies using an audiometer
auditory ossicles Three specially shaped bones in the middle ear that anchor the eardrum to the tympanic cavity and that transmit vibrations to the inner ear
aur(o), auricul(o) hearing
auricle Funnel-like structure leading from the external ear to the external auditory meatus; also called pinna
blephar(o) eyelid
blepharitis Inflammation of the eyelid
blepharochalasis Loss of elasticity of the eyelid
blepharoplasty Surgical repair of the eyelid
blepharoptosis Drooping of the eyelid
blepharospasm Involuntary eyelid movement; excessive blinking
blindness Loss or absences of vision
cataract Cloudiness of the lens of the eye
cerumin(o) wax
chalazion Nodular inflammation that usually forms on the eyelid
cholesteatoma Fatty cyst within the middle ear
choroid Thin posterior membrane in the middle layer of the eye
ciliary body Thick anterior membrane in the middle layer of the eye
cochle(o) cochlea
cochlea Snail-shaped structure in the inner ear that contains the organ of Corti
cones Specialized receptor cells in the retina that perceive color and bright light
conjunctiv(o) conjunctiva
conjunctive (pl. conjunctivae) Mucous membrane lining of the eyelid
conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyelid
contact lenses Corrective lenses worn on the surface of the eye
cor(o), core(o) pupil
corne(o) cornea
cornea Transparent anterior section of the eyeball that bends light in a process called refraction
cryoretinopexy Fixing of a torn retina using extreme cold
cycl(o) ciliary body
dacry(o) tears
dacryoadenitis Inflammation of the lacrimal glands
dacryocystectomy Removal of a lacrimal sac
dacryocystitis Inflammation of a tear duct
deafness Loss or absence of hearing
decibel Measure of the intensity of sound
dermatochalasis Loss of elasticity of the eyelid
diopter Unit of refracting power of a lens
diplopia Double vision
ear Organ of hearing
eardrum Oval, semitransparent membrane that moves in response to sound waves and produces vibrations
endolymph Fluid inside the membranous labyrinth important to hearing and equilibrium
enucleation Removal of an eyeball
epiphora Excessive tearing
equilibrium Sense of balance
esotropia Deviation of one eye inward
eustachian tube Tube that connects the middle ear to the pharynx
exophthalmos, exophthalmus Abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs
exotropia Deviation of one eye outward
eye Organ of sight
eyebrow Clump of hair,usually about 1/2-inch above the eye, that helps to keep foreign particles from entering the eye
eyelashes Group of hairs protruding from the end of the eyelid; helps to keep foreign particles from entering the eye
eyelid Moveable covering over the eye
farsightedness Hyperopia
fovea centralis Depression in the center of the macula lutea; perceives sharpest images
glaucoma Any various dieseases caused by abnomrally high eye pressure
hearing Ability to perceive sound
hordeolum Infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid; sty
hyperopia Focusing behind the retina causing vision distortion; farsightedness
incus One of three auditory ossicles; the anvil
ir(o), irid(o) iris
iridectomy Removal of part of the iris
iridotomy Incision into the iris to relieve pressure
iris Colored part of the eye that contains muscles that expand and contract in response to light
iritis Inflammation of the iris
kerat(o) cornea
keratitis Inflammation of the cornea
keratoplasty Corneal transplant
labyrinthitis Inflammation of the labyrinth
lacrim(o) tears
lacrimal glands Glands that secret liquid to moisten the eyes and produce tears
lacrimation Secretion of tears, usually excessively
lens Colorless, flexible transparent body behind the iris
macula Inner ear structure containing hairlike sensors that move to maintain equilibrium
macula lutea Small, yellowish area located in the center of the retina, which has a depression called the fovea centralis
macular degeneration Gradual loss of vision caused by degeneration of tissue of the macula
malleus One of the three auditory ossicles; the hammer
mastoid(o) mastoid process
mastoiditis Inflammation of the mastoid process
membranous labyrinth One of two tubes that make up the semicircular canals
Meniere's disease Elvated pressure within the cochlea
miotic Agent tha causes the pupil to contract
mydriatic Agent that causes pupil to dilate
myopia Foccusing in front of the retina causing vision distorting; nearsightedness
myring(o) eardrum, middle ear
myringitis Inflammation of the eardrum
myringotomy Insertion of a small tube to drain fluid from the ears (particularly of children)
nas(o) nose
nearsightedness Myopia
neuroretina Thick layer of nervous tissue in the retina
nyctalopia Night blindness
nystagmus Excessive involuntary eyeball movement
ocul(o) eye
olfactory organs Organs at the top of the nasal cavity containing olfactory receptors
ophthalm(o) eye
ophthalmologist Medical specialist who diagnoses and treats eye disorders
ophthalmoscopy Visual examination of the interior of the eye
opt(o), optic(o) eye
optician Technician who makes and fits corrective lenses
optic nerve Nerve that transmit nerve impulses from the eye to the brain
optometrist Nonmedical specialist who examines the eyes and prescribes lenses
organ of Corti Structure in the basilar membrane with hairlike receptors that receive and transmit sound waves
osseus labyrinth One of two tubes that make up the semicircular canals
ossicul(o) ossicle
otalgia Pain in the ear
otitis externa Inflammation of the external ear canal
otitis media Inflammation of the middle ear
otoliths Small calcifications in the inner ear that help to maintain balance
otologist Medical specialist in ear disorders
otoplasty Surgical reapair of the outer ear
otorrhagia Bleeding from the ear
otorrhea Purulent discharge from the ear
otosclerosis Hardening of bones of the ear
otoscopy Inspection of the ear using an otoscope
papillae Small, raised structures that contain taste buds
paracusis Impaired hearing
perilymph Liquid secreted by the walls of the osseus labyrinth
phac(o), phak(o) lens
phacoemulsification Use of ulrasound to break up an remove cataracts
photophobia Extreme sensitivity to light
pinkeye Conjunctivitis
pinna Auricle
presbyacusis Age-related hearing loss
prebyopia Age-related dimished ability to focus or accommodate
pseudophakia Eye with an implanted lens after cataract surgery
pupil Black circular center of the eye; opens and closes when muscles in the iris expand and contract in response to light
pupill(o) pupil
refraction Process of bending light rays
retin(o) retina
retina Oval, light-sensitive membraine in the interior layer of the eye; decodes light waves and transmits information to the brain
retinitis pigmentosa Progressive, inherited disease with a pigmented spot on the retina and poor night vision
rods Specialized receptor cells in the retina that perceive black to white shades
scler(o) white of the eye
sclera 9pl. sclerae Thick, tough membrane in the outer eye layer; supports the eyeball structure
scleritis Inflammation of the sclera
scot(o) darkness
scotoma Blind spot in vision
semicircular canals Structures in the inner ear important to equilibrium
sensory receptors Specialized tissue containing cells that can receive stimuli
sensory system Organs or tissue that perceive and receive stimuli from the outside or within the body
sight Ability to see
smell Ability to perceive odors
stapedectomy Removal of the stapes to cure otosclerosis
stapes (pl. stapes, stapedes) One of three auditory ossicles; the stirrup
strabismus Eye misalignment
sty, stye Hordeolum
taste Ability to perceive the qualities of ingested matter
taste buds Organs that sense the taste of food
taste cells Specialized receptors cells withing the taste buds
tears Moisture secreted from the lacrimal glands
tinnitus Constant ringing or buzzing in the ear
tonometry Measurement of tension or pressure within the eye
touch Ability to perceive pressure on the skin
trabulectomy Removal of part of the trabeculum to allow aqueous humor to flow freely around the eye
trichiasis Abnormal growth of eyelashes in a direction that causes them rub on the eye
tympan(o) eardrum, middle ear
tympanic membrane Eardrum
tympanitis Inflammation of the eardrum
tympanoplasty Repair of the eardrum
uve(o) uvea
uvea Region of the eye containing the iris, choroid membrane, and ciliary bodies
verigo Dizziness
vestibule Bony chamber between the semicircular canal and the cochlea
acc. accommonodation
AD right ear
ARMD age-related macular degeneration
AS left ear
AU both ears
D diopter
dB decibel
DVA distance visual activity
ECCE extracapsular cataract extraction
EENT eye, ear, nose and throat
ENT ear, nose, and throat
ICCE intracapsular cataract cryoextraction
IOL intracular lens
NVA near visual acuity
OD right eye
OM otitis media
OS left eye
OU each eye
PERRLA pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommonodation
PE tube polyethylene ventilating tube (placed in the eardrum)
SOM serious otitis media
VA visual acuity
VF visual field
+ plus/convex
- minus/concave
acanth(o) spiny; thorny
actin(o) light
aer(o) air; gas
alge, algesi, algio, algo pain
amyl(o) starch
andro masculine
athero plaque; fatty substance
bacill(i) bacilli; bacteria
bacteri(o) bacteria
bar(o) weight; pressure
bas(o), basi(o) base
bio, Greek bios, life life
blasto immature cells
cac(o) bad; ill
calc(o), calci(o) calcium
carcin(o) cancer
chem(o) chemical
chlor(o) chlorine, green
chondrio, chondro cartilage, grainy, gritty
chore(o) dance
chrom, chromat chromo color
chrono time
chyl(o) chyle, a digestive juice
chym(o) chyme, semifluid present during digestion
cine(o) movement
coni(o) dust
crin(o) screte
cry(o) cold
crypt(o) hidden; obscure
cyan(o) blue
cycl(o) circle; cycle; ciliary body
cyst(o), cysti bladder, cyst, cystic duct
cyt(o) cell
dextr(o) right, toward the right
dips(o) thirst
dors(o), dorsi back
dynamo force; energy
echo reflected sound
electr(o) electricity; electric
eosin(o) red; rosy
ergo work
erythr(o) red, redness
esthesio sensation, perception
ethmo ethmoid bone
etio cause
fibr(o) fiber
fluor(o) light; luminous; fluorine
fungi fungus
galact(o) milk
gen(o) producing; being born
gero; geront(o) old age
gluco glucose
glyco sugars
gonio angle
granulo granular
gyn(o), gyne, gyneco women
home(o), homo same; constant
hydr(o) hydrogen, water
hypn(o) sleep
iatr(o) physician; treatment
ichthy(o) dry; scaly; fish
idio distinct; unknown
immun(o) safe; immune
kal(i) potassium
karyo nucleus
ket(o), keton(o) ketone; acetone
kin(o), kine movement
kinesi(o), kineso motion
kyph(o) humpback
lact(o), lacti milk
latero lateral, to one side
lepto light, frail, thin
leuk(o) white
lip(o) fat
lith(o) stone
log(o) speech, words, thought
lys(o) dissolution
macr(o) large; long
medi(o) middle; medial plane
meg(a), megal(o) large; million
melan(o) black; dark
mes(o) middle; median
micr(o) small; one-millionth; tiny
mio smaller; less
morph(o) structure; shape
narco sleep; numbness
necr(o) death; dying
noct(i) night
normo normal
nucle(o) nucleus
nyct(o) night
oncho, onco tumor
orth(o) straight; normal
oxy sharp; acute; oxygen
pachy thick
path(o) disease
phago eating; devouring; swallowing
pharmaco drugs; medicine
phon(o) sound; voice; speech
phot(o) light
physi, physio physical; natural
physo air; gas; growing
phyt(o) plant
plasma, plasmo formative; plasma
poikilo varied; irregular
pseud(o) false
pyo pus
pyreto fever
pyro fever; fire; hear
radio radiation; x-ray; radius
salping(o) tube
schisto split
schiz(o) split; division
scler(o) hardness; hardening
scolio crooked; bent
scoto darkness
sidero iron
sito food; grain
somat(o) body
somn(o), somni sleep
sono sound
spasmo spasm
spher(o) round; spherical
spir(o) breath; breathe
squamo scale; squamous
staphyl(o) grapelike clusters
steno narrowness
stere(o) three-dimensional
strepto twisted chains; streptococci
styl(o) peg-shaped
syring(o) tube
tel(o), tele(o) distant; end; complete
terato monster(as a malformed fetus)
therm heat
tono tension; pressure
top(o) place; topical
tox(i), toxico, toxo poison, toxin
tropho food; nurtrition
vivi life
xanth(o) yellow
xeno stranger
xer(o) dry
xiph(o) sword; xiphoid
zo(o) life
zym(o) fermentation; enzyme
a- without
ab-,abs- away from
ad- toward, to
ambi- both, around
an- without
ana- up, toward
ante- before
anti- against
apo- derived. separate
aut(o)- self
bi- twice, double
brachy- short
brady- slow
cata- down
circum- around
co-, col-, com-, con-, cor- together
contra- against
de- away from
di-, dif-, dir-, dis- not, separated
dia- through
dys- abnormal; difficult
ect(o)- outside
end(o)- within
epi- over
eu- well, good, normal
ex- out of, away from
exo- external, on the outside
extra- without, outside of
hemi- half
hyper- above normal; overly
hypo- below normal
infra- positioned beneath
inter- between
intra- within
iso- equal,same
mal- bad; inadequate
meg(a)-, megal(o)- large
mes(o)- middle, median
meta- after
micr(o)- small, microscopic
mon(o)- single
multi- many
olig(o)- few; little; scanty
pan-, pnat(o)- all, entire
par(a)- beside; abnormal; involving two parts
per- through intensely
peri- around, about, near
pluri- several, more
poly- many
post- after, following
pre- before
pro- before, forward
quadra-, quadri- four
re- again,backward
retro- behind, backward
semi- half
sub- less than, under, inferior
super- more than, above, superior
supra- above, over
syl-, sym-, syn-, sys- together
tachy- fast
trans- across, through
ultra- beyond, excessive
un- not
uni- one
-ad toward
-algia pain
-asthenia weakness
-blast immature, forming
-cele hernia
-cidal destroying, killing
-cide destroying, killing
-clasis breaking
-crine secreting
-crit separate
-cyte cell
-cytosis condition of cells
-derma skin
-desis bingind
-dynia pain
-ectasia expansion; dilation
-ectasis expanding; dilating
-ectomy removal of
-edema swelling
-ema condition
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood
-emic relating to blood
-esthesia sensation
-form in the shape of
-gen producing, coming to be
-genesis production of
-genic producing
-globin protein
-globulin protein
-gram a recording
-graph recording instrument
-graphy process of recording
-iasis pathological condition or state
-ic pertaining to
-ics treatment, practice, body of knowledge
-ism condition, disease, doctrine
-itis (pl. -itides) imflammation
-kinesia movement
-kinesis movement
-lepsy condition of
-leptic having seizures
-logist one who practices
-logy study, practice
-lysis destroying
-malacia softening
-mania obsession
-megaly enlargement
-meter measuring device
-metry measurement
-oid like, resembling
-oma (pl. -omata) tumor, neoplasm
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-opsy view of
-osis (pl. -oses) condition, state, process
-ostomy opening
-oxia oxygen
-para bearing
-parous producing; bearing
-paresis slight paralysis
-pathy disease
-penia deficiency
-pepsia digestion
-pexy fixation, usually done surgically
-phage, -phagia, -phagy eating, devouring
-phasia speaking
-pheresis removal
-phil attraction; affinity for
-philia attraction; affinity for
-phobia fear
-phonia sound
-phoresis carrying
-phoria feeling; carrying
-phrenia of the mind
-phthisis wasting away
-phylaxis protection
-physis growing
-plakia plaque
-plasia formation
-plasm formation
-plastic forming
-plasty surgical repair
-plegia paraylsis
-plegic one who is paralyzed
-pnea breath
-poiesis formation
-poietin one that forms
-poietic forming
-porosis lessening in density
-ptosis falling down; drooping
-rrhage discharging heavily
-rrhagia heavy discharge
rrhaphy surgical suturing
-rrhea a flowing, a flux
-rrhexis rupture
-schisis splitting
-scope instrument for observing
-scopy use of an instrument for observing
-somnia sleep
-spasm contraction
-stalsis contraction
-stasis stopping; constant
-stat agent to maintain a state
-static maintaining a state
-stenosis narrowing
-stomy opening
-tome cutting instrument, segment
-tomy cutting operation
-trophic nutritional
-trophy nutrition
-tropia turning
-tropic turning toward
-trophy condition of turning toward
-uria urine
-version turning
Created by: mfenton142
Popular Medical sets




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