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Openstax A&P Ch 1

Key Terms

TermDefinition
abdominopelvic cavity division of the anterior (ventral) cavity that houses the abdominal and pelvic viscera
anabolism assembly of more complex molecules from simpler molecules
anatomical position standard reference position used for describing locations and directions on the human body
Anatomy science that studies the form and composition of the body’s structures
Anterior describes the front or direction toward the front of the body; also referred to as ventral
Anterior cavity (ventral cavity) larger body cavity located anterior to the posterior (dorsal) body cavity; includes the serous membrane-lined pleural cavities for the lungs, pericardial cavity for the heart, and peritoneal cavity for the abdominal and pelvic organs;
Catabolism breaking down of more complex molecules into simpler molecules
Caudal describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column); also referred to as inferior
Cell smallest independently functioning unit of all organisms; in animals, a cell contains cytoplasm, composed of fluid and organelles
Computed tomography (CT) medical imaging technique in which a computer-enhanced cross-sectional X-ray image is obtained
Control center compares values to their normal range; deviations cause the activation of an effector
Cranial describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper; also referred to as superior
Cranial Cavity division of the posterior (dorsal) cavity that houses the brain
Deep describes a position farther from the surface of the body
Development changes an organism goes through during its life
Differentiation process by which unspecialized cells become specialized in structure and function
Distal describes a position farther from the point of attachment or the trunk of the body
Dorsal describes the back or direction toward the back of the body; also referred to as posterior
Dorsal cavity posterior body cavity that houses the brain and spinal cord; also referred to the posterior body cavity
Effector organ that can cause a change in a value
Frontal plane two-dimensional, vertical plane that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior portions
Gross anatomy study of the larger structures of the body, typically with the unaided eye; also referred to macroscopic anatomy
Growth process of increasing in size
Homeostasis steady state of body systems that living organisms maintain
Inferior describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column); also referred to as caudal
Lateral describes the side or direction toward the side of the body
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) medical imaging technique in which a device generates a magnetic field to obtain detailed sectional images of the internal structures of the body
Medial describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body
Metabolism sum of all the body’s chemical reactions
Microscopic anatomy study of very small structures of the body using magnification
Negative feedback homeostatic mechanism that tends to stabilize an upset in the body’s physiological condition by preventing an excessive response to a stimulus, typically as the stimulus is removed
Normal range range of values around the set point that do not cause a reaction by the control center
Nutrient chemical obtained from foods and beverages that is critical to human survival
Organ functionally distinct structure composed of two or more types of tissues
Organ system group of organs that work together to carry out a particular function
Organism living being that has a cellular structure and that can independently perform all physiologic functions necessary for life
Pericardium sac that encloses the heart
Peritoneum serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the organs found there
Physiology science that studies the chemistry, biochemistry, and physics of the body’s functions
Plane imaginary two-dimensional surface that passes through the body
Pleura serous membrane that lines the pleural cavity and covers the lungs
Positive feedback mechanism that intensifies a change in the body’s physiological condition in response to a stimulus
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) medical imaging technique in which radiopharmaceuticals are traced to reveal metabolic and physiological functions in tissues
Posterior describes the back or direction toward the back of the body; also referred to as dorsal
Posterior cavity posterior body cavity that houses the brain and spinal cord; also referred to as dorsal cavity
Pressure force exerted by a substance in contact with another substance
Prone face down
Proximal describes a position nearer to the point of attachment or the trunk of the body
Regional anatomy study of the structures that contribute to specific body regions
Renewal process by which worn-out cells are replaced
Reproduction process by which new organisms are generated
Responsiveness ability of an organisms or a system to adjust to changes in conditions
Sagittal plane two-dimensional, vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides
Section in anatomy, a single flat surface of a three-dimensional structure that has been cut through
Sensor (also, receptor) reports a monitored physiological value to the control center
Serosa membrane that covers organs and reduces friction; also referred to as serous membrane
Serous membrane membrane that covers organs and reduces friction; also referred to as serosa
Set point ideal value for a physiological parameter; the level or small range within which physiological parameter such as blood pressure is stable and optimally healthful, that is, within its parameters of homeostasis
Spinal cavity division of the dorsal cavity that houses the spinal cord; also referred to as vertebral cavity
Superficial describes a position nearer to the surface of the body
Superior describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper; also referred to as cranial
Supine face up
Systemic anatomy study of the structures that contribute to specific body systems
Thoracic cavity division of the anterior (ventral) cavity that houses the heart, lungs, esophagus, and trachea
Tissue group of similar or closely related cells that act together to perform a specific function
Transverse plane two-dimensional, horizontal plane that divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions
Ultrasonography application of ultrasonic waves to visualize subcutaneous body structures such as tendons and organs
Ventral describes the front or direction toward the front of the body; also referred to as anterior
Ventral cavity (anterior body cavity) located anterior to the posterior (dorsal) body cavity; includes the serous membrane-lined pleural cavities for the lungs, pericardial cavity for the heart, and peritoneal cavity for the abdominal and pelvic organs;
X-ray form of high energy electromagnetic radiation with a short wavelength capable of penetrating solids and ionizing gases; used in medicine as a diagnostic aid to visualize body structures such as bones
Created by: Park4ex