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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

QuestionAnswer
Endocrine refers to hormones and the glands that: secrete hormones.
Secrete means: produce and discharge (release).
Endocrine glands secrete (produce and discharge) hormones directly into the: bloodstream.
Hormones are: chemical catalysts.
Catalysts are: reactions.
Hormones are necessary to maintain a balance of the body's environment called: homeostasis.
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland located at the: base of the brain.
The pituitary gland is the size of a: pea.
The pituitary gland is aka the: hypophysis or "master gland".
The primary gland (hypophysis) is also known as the master gland because pituitary hormones control the function of other: endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland is controlled by the: hypothalamus (wife).
The pituitary gland is divided into a front section and back section called the: anterior lobe and posterior lobe.
The pituitary gland is also known as the "master gland": because pituitary hormones control the functions of other endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland secretes: GH which stands for growth hormone.
Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary gland stimulates (causes) body cells to increase in size and : replicate which means copy.
The amount of growth hormone secreted usually decreases at age: 20.
Deficient secretion of growth hormone (GH) causes: dwarfism.
Excessive secretion (production and discharge) of growth hormone (GH) can cause: giantism.
The pituitary gland secretes TSH which stands for: thyroid stimulating hormone aka thyrotropin or T7.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to secrete: thyroid hormones.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is aka: thyrotropin or T7.
The pituitary gland secretes: ACTH which stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) stimulates (causes) the adrenal glands to secrete: adrenal hormones.
The pituitary gland secretes : MSH which stands for melanocyte stimulation hormone.
Melanocyte stimulation hormones (MSH) causes: melanocytes (skin cells) to produce a pigment (color) called melanin.
A hereditary absence of melanin is called: albinism.
Hereditary is aka: familial or genetic.
Melanin is: skin pigment (color).
The pituitary gland secretes: FSH which stands for follicle stimulating hormone.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) : causes an ovary to ripen an oocyte (egg cell) into a mature egg called an ovum.
Follcle stimulating hormone (FSH) : causes the testicles (testes) to initiate spermatogenesis which means creation of spermatozoa (sperm).
Initiate means : start.
The pituitary gland secretes: LH which stands for luteinizing hormone.
Secretes means: produces and discharges (releases).
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates (causes): Expulsion (release) of an ovum from an ovary called ovulation.
An ovum is a: mature egg.
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates: Production of the hormone to maintain gestation called progestreone.
Gestation means: pregnancy.
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates : the testicles (testes) to produce the male sex hormone testosterone.
The pituitary gland secretes: Lactogenic hormones aka prolactin.
Lactogenic hormones (prolactin) stimulates lactation which means: discharge (release) of milk.
The pituitary gland secretes: ADH which stands for antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): stimulates the kidneys to conserve water.
Deficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is abbreviated DI which stands for: diabetes insipidus.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized (described) by: polyuria and polydipsia which means excessive urination and excessive thirst.
Synthetic ADH is called: vasopressin.
The pituitary gland secretes: 9. OT which stands for oxytocin.
Oxytocin (OT) stimulates the uterus to contract during L+D which stands for: labor and delivery.
Synthetic oxytocin is called: Pitocin aka "pit drip".
Oxytocin (OT) is also known as the : bonding hormone.
Bonding refers to: male-female bonding and mother-neonate bonding.
Neonate means: newborn.
THYROID GLAND The thyroid gland is located on the (R) and (L) sides of the trachea (windpipe) just inferior (below) the: larynx aka the voice box.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to secrete: 1. T3 and 2. T4 also known as thyroxine.
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as: thyroxine.
T3 and T4 (thyroxine) regulate: metabolism.
Metabolism is the rate at which the body utilizes: energy.
Hypothyroidism means : deficient thyroxine.
Hypothyroidism is aka: myxedema.
Hyperthyroidism means: excessive thyroxine.
Hyperthyroidism is abbreviated GD which stands forL Graves disease.
Hypercalcemia means: blood condition of excessive calcium.
Hypercalcemia occurs (happens) when you ingest (eat): calcium.
Hypercalcemia stimulates: the thyroid gland to secrete Calcitonin.
Calcitonin stimulates absorption of Ca and P: into the bones.
Ca and P stand for: calcium and phosphorus.
PARATHYROID GLANDS The parathyroids are raisen-shaped glands embedded in the: posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
Hypocalcemia means: blood condition of deficient calcium.
Hypocalcemia occus when you do not ingest: calcium.
Parathyroid hormones (PTH) stimulates osteocytes to release stored: CA and P into the blood. (Calcium and phosphorus).
Osteocytes are: bone cells.
Chronic (persistent) secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) can cause loss of: bone mineral density.
Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) can lead to OP which stands for: osteoporosis.
BMD will be sacrificed to supply calcium (Ca) and P (phosphorus) to the muscles (heart).
PTH and calcitonin are necessary to maintain a: balance of the body's internal environment called homeostasis
ADRENAL GLANDS The adrenal glands are also known as : suprarenal glands because they are located above (superior) t the kidneys.
The inner portion of the adrenal glands is called the: adrenal medulla.
The outer portion of the adrenal gland is called the: adrenal cortex.
The adrenal medulla secretes the: fight or flight hormone called adrenaline or epinephrine.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight or flight) response include: 1. Tachycardia which means fast heart rate. 2. Hypertension which mans HBP.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight of flight) response includes: 3. Tachypnea which is fast breathing (ventilation) 4. Increased diameter ( lumina) of the bronchi and bronchioles called bronchodilation.
Changes that occur during the flight or fight response include: 5. Increased diameter of the pupils called pupillary dilation.
Papillary dilation will increase the VF which stands for: visual field.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic fight or flight response include: 6. Shunting (diverting) blood from the periphery (skin) to the brain, heart, lungs, and large muscles of the arms and legs causing a color change called pallor (paleness).
Changes that occur during the sympathetic fight or flight response include: Conversion (changing) of glycogen (stored sugar in the liver) to glucose aka dextrose.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete a corticosteroid called: Cortisol aka hydrocortisone.
Physiologies (functions) of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: a. Assisting body cells to se glucose and fat for energy.
Glucose is one type of sugar and is aka: dextrose.
Physiologies (functions) of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: b. Reducing erythema (redness), edema (swelling) and pain associated with the body's protective reaction to trauma (injury) called inflammation.
Physiologies of cortisol include: c. Assisting the body with physical and mental tension called stress.
Hyperadrenalism means: excessive cortisol.
Hyperadrenalism is aka: Cushing syndrome (CS).
Hypoadrenalism means: deficient cortisol.
Hypoadrenalism is called: Addison's disease (AD).
The adrenal cortex secretes a corticosteroid to regulate (control) electrolytes called: Aldosterone.
Electrolytes are: salts.
Electrolytes (salts) include: a. Na which stands for sodium. b. K which stands for potassium
Electrolytes (salts) include: c. Cl which stands for chloride d. Cas which stands for calcium. e. P which stands for phosphorus
Anabolic steroids, the type sometimes used by athletes are synthetic versions of the male sex hormone called: testosterone.
PANCREAS The pancreas is located retrogastric which means : behind (posterior to) the stomach.
Physiologies of the pancreas include secretion of insulin when the blood sugar (BS) : increases.
Insulin allows glucose (dextrose) to enter the body cells causing the blood sugar (BS) to: decrease.
Glucagon stimulates the liver to release stored sugar (glycogen) causing the blood sugar to: increase.
Insulin and glucogon are necessary to maintain a balance of the body's internal environment called: homeostasis.
Insulin is secreted by the pancreas when the blood sugar (BS): decreases.
A random plasma glucose (RPG) is aka a BS which stands for: blood sugar.
A normal RPC or BS is: less than <200 mg/dL.
DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus can be caused by hypoinsulinism which means: condition of deficient insulin.
Insulin allows glucose to enter body cells causing the blood sugar to: decrease.
Diabetes mellitus in children is abbreviated : IDDM which stands for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus aka juvenile onset diabetes mellitus aka type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most serious type of diabetes mellitus and requires: a. Daily subcutaneous injections of insulin.
A synthetic insulin is called: NovoLog.
Type I diabetes mellutus is the most serious type of DM and requires: b. Strict control of caloric intake. c. Regular consistent exercise.
Diabetes mellitus can also be caused by body cells resisting insulin abbreviated IRDM which stands for: Insulin resistant diabetes mellitus.
Insulin resistance diabetes mellitus (IRDM) is aka NIDDM which stands for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maturity onset diabetes mellitus or type II diabetes mellitus
Type II diabetes mellitus can often be controlled by: oral medications called antidiabetics.
Type II diabetes can often be controlled by: Strict control of caloric intake Regular consisent exercise.
Risk factors of DM include: Heredity aka familial or genetic A waist size greater than 40 in men and 35 in women.
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Over consumption of refined sugars.
Risk factors for DM include: Over consumption of food.
DM can be caued y hopoinsulinism which means: condition of deficient insulin.
Risk factors forDM include: a sedentary lifestyle which means little or no regular exercise.
Risk factors for DM include: Hyperglycemia during pregnancy called gestational diabetes mellitus around the 24th week.
Risk factors for DM include: Certain races such as African american Native American Asian American Hispanic American.
Risk factors for DM include: Chronic HTN which stands for persistent hypertension aka high blood pressure.
Signs and symptoms of DM include: a. Fatigue which means loss of energy. b. Loss of weight.
Signs and symptoms of DM include: c. Polyuria which means excessive urine production Polydipsia which means excessive thirst.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include: 1. MI which stands for myocardial infarction aka a heart attack. 2. CVA which stands for cerebrovascular accident.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include: 3. DR which stands for diabetic retinopathy which causes blindness.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include: 4. RF which stands for renal failure aka kidney failure. 5. ED which stands for erectile dysfunction.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include : 6. PAD which stands for peripheral artery disease.
Poor circulation caused by PAD can lead to: tissue putrefaction (rot) called gangrene.
DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES Diagnostic blood tests include: 1. OGTT which stands for oral glucose tolerance test Normal oral glucose tolerance test is less than 140 mg/dL:
Diagnostic blood tests include: 2. FBS which stands for fasting blood sugar aka FPG which stands for fasting plasma glucose. Normal fasting blood sugar or fasting plasma glucose is less than <100 mg/dL.
Diagnostic blood tests include: A1c which is an average blood sugar for the past 3 months. Normal A1c (HbA1c) is less than <5.7%.
Diagnostic blood tests inclue: PBI which stands for protein bound iodine.
A protein bound iodine (PBI) is a TFT which stands for: thyroid function test.
Diagnostic blood tests include: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or hCG).
HCG (hCG) is a: hormone present in the blood and/or urine during gestation aka pregnancy.
HCG (hCG) is also known as an : EPT which stands for early pregnancy test.
Created by: bterrelonge