Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

Endocrine refers to hormones and the glands that: secrete hormones.
Secrete means: produce and discharge (release).
Endocrine glands secrete (produce and discharge) hormones directly into the: bloodstream.
Hormones are: chemical catalysts.
Catalysts are: reactions.
Hormones are necessary to maintain a balance of the body's environment called: homeostasis.
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland located at the: base of the brain.
The pituitary gland is the size of a: pea.
The pituitary gland is aka the: hypophysis or "master gland".
The primary gland (hypophysis) is also known as the master gland because pituitary hormones control the function of other: endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland is controlled by the: hypothalamus (wife).
The pituitary gland is divided into a front section and back section called the: anterior lobe and posterior lobe.
The pituitary gland is also known as the "master gland": because pituitary hormones control the functions of other endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland secretes: GH which stands for growth hormone.
Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary gland stimulates (causes) body cells to increase in size and : replicate which means copy.
The amount of growth hormone secreted usually decreases at age: 20.
Deficient secretion of growth hormone (GH) causes: dwarfism.
Excessive secretion (production and discharge) of growth hormone (GH) can cause: giantism.
The pituitary gland secretes TSH which stands for: thyroid stimulating hormone aka thyrotropin or T7.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to secrete: thyroid hormones.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is aka: thyrotropin or T7.
The pituitary gland secretes: ACTH which stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) stimulates (causes) the adrenal glands to secrete: adrenal hormones.
The pituitary gland secretes : MSH which stands for melanocyte stimulation hormone.
Melanocyte stimulation hormones (MSH) causes: melanocytes (skin cells) to produce a pigment (color) called melanin.
A hereditary absence of melanin is called: albinism.
Hereditary is aka: familial or genetic.
Melanin is: skin pigment (color).
The pituitary gland secretes: FSH which stands for follicle stimulating hormone.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) : causes an ovary to ripen an oocyte (egg cell) into a mature egg called an ovum.
Follcle stimulating hormone (FSH) : causes the testicles (testes) to initiate spermatogenesis which means creation of spermatozoa (sperm).
Initiate means : start.
The pituitary gland secretes: LH which stands for luteinizing hormone.
Secretes means: produces and discharges (releases).
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates (causes): Expulsion (release) of an ovum from an ovary called ovulation.
An ovum is a: mature egg.
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates: Production of the hormone to maintain gestation called progestreone.
Gestation means: pregnancy.
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates : the testicles (testes) to produce the male sex hormone testosterone.
The pituitary gland secretes: Lactogenic hormones aka prolactin.
Lactogenic hormones (prolactin) stimulates lactation which means: discharge (release) of milk.
The pituitary gland secretes: ADH which stands for antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): stimulates the kidneys to conserve water.
Deficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is abbreviated DI which stands for: diabetes insipidus.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized (described) by: polyuria and polydipsia which means excessive urination and excessive thirst.
Synthetic ADH is called: vasopressin.
The pituitary gland secretes: 9. OT which stands for oxytocin.
Oxytocin (OT) stimulates the uterus to contract during L+D which stands for: labor and delivery.
Synthetic oxytocin is called: Pitocin aka "pit drip".
Oxytocin (OT) is also known as the : bonding hormone.
Bonding refers to: male-female bonding and mother-neonate bonding.
Neonate means: newborn.
THYROID GLAND The thyroid gland is located on the (R) and (L) sides of the trachea (windpipe) just inferior (below) the: larynx aka the voice box.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to secrete: 1. T3 and 2. T4 also known as thyroxine.
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as: thyroxine.
T3 and T4 (thyroxine) regulate: metabolism.
Metabolism is the rate at which the body utilizes: energy.
Hypothyroidism means : deficient thyroxine.
Hypothyroidism is aka: myxedema.
Hyperthyroidism means: excessive thyroxine.
Hyperthyroidism is abbreviated GD which stands forL Graves disease.
Hypercalcemia means: blood condition of excessive calcium.
Hypercalcemia occurs (happens) when you ingest (eat): calcium.
Hypercalcemia stimulates: the thyroid gland to secrete Calcitonin.
Calcitonin stimulates absorption of Ca and P: into the bones.
Ca and P stand for: calcium and phosphorus.
PARATHYROID GLANDS The parathyroids are raisen-shaped glands embedded in the: posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
Hypocalcemia means: blood condition of deficient calcium.
Hypocalcemia occus when you do not ingest: calcium.
Parathyroid hormones (PTH) stimulates osteocytes to release stored: CA and P into the blood. (Calcium and phosphorus).
Osteocytes are: bone cells.
Chronic (persistent) secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) can cause loss of: bone mineral density.
Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) can lead to OP which stands for: osteoporosis.
BMD will be sacrificed to supply calcium (Ca) and P (phosphorus) to the muscles (heart).
PTH and calcitonin are necessary to maintain a: balance of the body's internal environment called homeostasis
ADRENAL GLANDS The adrenal glands are also known as : suprarenal glands because they are located above (superior) t the kidneys.
The inner portion of the adrenal glands is called the: adrenal medulla.
The outer portion of the adrenal gland is called the: adrenal cortex.
The adrenal medulla secretes the: fight or flight hormone called adrenaline or epinephrine.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight or flight) response include: 1. Tachycardia which means fast heart rate. 2. Hypertension which mans HBP.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight of flight) response includes: 3. Tachypnea which is fast breathing (ventilation) 4. Increased diameter ( lumina) of the bronchi and bronchioles called bronchodilation.
Changes that occur during the flight or fight response include: 5. Increased diameter of the pupils called pupillary dilation.
Papillary dilation will increase the VF which stands for: visual field.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic fight or flight response include: 6. Shunting (diverting) blood from the periphery (skin) to the brain, heart, lungs, and large muscles of the arms and legs causing a color change called pallor (paleness).
Changes that occur during the sympathetic fight or flight response include: Conversion (changing) of glycogen (stored sugar in the liver) to glucose aka dextrose.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete a corticosteroid called: Cortisol aka hydrocortisone.
Physiologies (functions) of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: a. Assisting body cells to se glucose and fat for energy.
Glucose is one type of sugar and is aka: dextrose.
Physiologies (functions) of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include: b. Reducing erythema (redness), edema (swelling) and pain associated with the body's protective reaction to trauma (injury) called inflammation.
Physiologies of cortisol include: c. Assisting the body with physical and mental tension called stress.
Hyperadrenalism means: excessive cortisol.
Hyperadrenalism is aka: Cushing syndrome (CS).
Hypoadrenalism means: deficient cortisol.
Hypoadrenalism is called: Addison's disease (AD).
The adrenal cortex secretes a corticosteroid to regulate (control) electrolytes called: Aldosterone.
Electrolytes are: salts.
Electrolytes (salts) include: a. Na which stands for sodium. b. K which stands for potassium
Electrolytes (salts) include: c. Cl which stands for chloride d. Cas which stands for calcium. e. P which stands for phosphorus
Anabolic steroids, the type sometimes used by athletes are synthetic versions of the male sex hormone called: testosterone.
PANCREAS The pancreas is located retrogastric which means : behind (posterior to) the stomach.
Physiologies of the pancreas include secretion of insulin when the blood sugar (BS) : increases.
Insulin allows glucose (dextrose) to enter the body cells causing the blood sugar (BS) to: decrease.
Glucagon stimulates the liver to release stored sugar (glycogen) causing the blood sugar to: increase.
Insulin and glucogon are necessary to maintain a balance of the body's internal environment called: homeostasis.
Insulin is secreted by the pancreas when the blood sugar (BS): decreases.
A random plasma glucose (RPG) is aka a BS which stands for: blood sugar.
A normal RPC or BS is: less than <200 mg/dL.
DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus can be caused by hypoinsulinism which means: condition of deficient insulin.
Insulin allows glucose to enter body cells causing the blood sugar to: decrease.
Diabetes mellitus in children is abbreviated : IDDM which stands for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus aka juvenile onset diabetes mellitus aka type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most serious type of diabetes mellitus and requires: a. Daily subcutaneous injections of insulin.
A synthetic insulin is called: NovoLog.
Type I diabetes mellutus is the most serious type of DM and requires: b. Strict control of caloric intake. c. Regular consistent exercise.
Diabetes mellitus can also be caused by body cells resisting insulin abbreviated IRDM which stands for: Insulin resistant diabetes mellitus.
Insulin resistance diabetes mellitus (IRDM) is aka NIDDM which stands for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maturity onset diabetes mellitus or type II diabetes mellitus
Type II diabetes mellitus can often be controlled by: oral medications called antidiabetics.
Type II diabetes can often be controlled by: Strict control of caloric intake Regular consisent exercise.
Risk factors of DM include: Heredity aka familial or genetic A waist size greater than 40 in men and 35 in women.
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include: Over consumption of refined sugars.
Risk factors for DM include: Over consumption of food.
DM can be caued y hopoinsulinism which means: condition of deficient insulin.
Risk factors forDM include: a sedentary lifestyle which means little or no regular exercise.
Risk factors for DM include: Hyperglycemia during pregnancy called gestational diabetes mellitus around the 24th week.
Risk factors for DM include: Certain races such as African american Native American Asian American Hispanic American.
Risk factors for DM include: Chronic HTN which stands for persistent hypertension aka high blood pressure.
Signs and symptoms of DM include: a. Fatigue which means loss of energy. b. Loss of weight.
Signs and symptoms of DM include: c. Polyuria which means excessive urine production Polydipsia which means excessive thirst.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include: 1. MI which stands for myocardial infarction aka a heart attack. 2. CVA which stands for cerebrovascular accident.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include: 3. DR which stands for diabetic retinopathy which causes blindness.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include: 4. RF which stands for renal failure aka kidney failure. 5. ED which stands for erectile dysfunction.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include : 6. PAD which stands for peripheral artery disease.
Poor circulation caused by PAD can lead to: tissue putrefaction (rot) called gangrene.
DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES Diagnostic blood tests include: 1. OGTT which stands for oral glucose tolerance test Normal oral glucose tolerance test is less than 140 mg/dL:
Diagnostic blood tests include: 2. FBS which stands for fasting blood sugar aka FPG which stands for fasting plasma glucose. Normal fasting blood sugar or fasting plasma glucose is less than <100 mg/dL.
Diagnostic blood tests include: A1c which is an average blood sugar for the past 3 months. Normal A1c (HbA1c) is less than <5.7%.
Diagnostic blood tests inclue: PBI which stands for protein bound iodine.
A protein bound iodine (PBI) is a TFT which stands for: thyroid function test.
Diagnostic blood tests include: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or hCG).
HCG (hCG) is a: hormone present in the blood and/or urine during gestation aka pregnancy.
HCG (hCG) is also known as an : EPT which stands for early pregnancy test.
Created by: bterrelonge
Popular Medical sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards