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Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

Endocrine refers to hormones and the glands that secrete hormones
Secrete means produce and discharge (release)
Endocrine glands secrete (produce and discharge) hormones directly into the bloodstream
Hormones are chemical catalysts
Catalysts are reactions
Hormones are necessary to maintain a balance of the body's environment called homeostasis
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland located at the base of the brain
The pituitary gland is the size of a pea
The pituitary gland is aka the hypophysis or "master gland".
The primary gland (hypophysis) is also known as the master gland because pituitary hormones control the function of other endocrine glands
The pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus (wife)
The pituitary gland is divided into a front section and back section called the anterior lobe and posterior lobe
The pituitary gland is also known as the "master gland" because pituitary hormones control the functions of other endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland secretes GH which stands for growth hormone.
Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary gland stimulates (causes) body cells to increase in size and replicate which means copy
The amount of growth hormone secreted usually decreases at age 20
Deficient secretion of growth hormone (GH) causes dwarfism
Excessive secretion (production and discharge) of growth hormone (GH) can cause giantism
The pituitary gland secretes TSH which stands for thyroid stimulating hormone aka thyrotropin or T7.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is aka thyrotropin or T7
The pituitary gland secretes ACTH which stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) stimulates (causes) the adrenal glands to secrete adrenal hormones
The pituitary gland secretes MSH which stands for melanocyte stimulation hormone.
Melanocyte stimulation hormones (MSH) causes melanocytes (skin cells) to produce a pigment (color0 called melanin.
A hereditary absence of melanin is called albinism
Hereditary is aka familial or geneti
Melanin is skin pigment (color)
The pituitary gland secretes FSH which stands for follicle stimulating hormone.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes an ovary to ripen an oocyte (egg cell) into a mature egg called an ovum.
Follcle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes the testicles (testes) to initiate spermatogenesis which means creation of spermatozoa (sperm)
Initiate means start
The pituitary gland secretes LH which stands for leutinizin hormone.
Secretes means produces and discharges (releases).
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates (causes) Expulsion (release) of an ovum from an ovary called ovulation.
An ovum is a mature egg
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates Production of the hormone to maintain gestation called progestreone.
Gestation means pregnancy
Leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the testicles (testes) to produce the male sex hormone testosterone
The pituitary gland secretes Lactogenic hormones aka prolactin
Lactogenic hormones (prolactin) stimulates lactation which means discharge (release) of milk
The pituitary gland secretes ADH which stands for antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates the kidneys to conserve water.
Deficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is abbreviated DI which stands fro diabetes insipiduls
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized (described) by polyuria and polydipsia which means excessive urination and excessive thirst
Synthetic ADH is called vasopressin
The pituitary gland secretes 9. OT which stands for oxytocin.
Oxytocin (OT) stimulates the uterus to contract during :&FD which stands for labor and delivery.
Synthetic oxytocin is called Pitocin aka "pit drip"
Oxytocin (OT) is also known as the bonding hormone.
Bonding refers to male-female bonding and mother-neonate bonding
Neonate means newborn
THYROID GLAND The thyroid gland is located on the (R) and (L) sides of the trachea (windpipe) just inferior (below) the larynx aka the voice box.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to secrete 1. T3 and 2. T4 also known as thyroxine
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as thyroxine
T3 and T4 (thyroxine) regulate metabolism
Metabolism is the rate at which the body utilizes energy
Hypothyroidism means deficient thyroxine
Hypothyrodisj is aka myxedema
Hyperthyroidism means excessive thyroxine
Hyperthyroidism is abbreviated GD which stands for Graves disease.
Hypercalcemia means blood condition of excessive calcium
Hypercalcemia occurs (happens) when you ingest (eat) calcium
Hypercalcemia stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete Calcitonin
Calcitonin stimulates absorption of Ca and P into te bones
Ca and P stand for calcium and phosphorus.
PARATHYROID GLANDS The parathyroids are raisen-shaped glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
Hypocalcemia means blood condition of deficient calcium.
Hypocalcemia occus when you do not ingest calcium
Parathyroid hormones (PTH) stimulates osteocytes to release stored CA and P into the blood.
Osteocytes are bone cells
Chronic (persistent) secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) can cause loss of bone mineral density
Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) can lead to OP which stands for osteoporosis.
BMD will be sacrificed to supply calcium (Ca) and P (phosphorus (P) to the muscles (heart)
PTH and calcitonin are necessary to maintain a balance of the body's internal environment called homeostasis
ADRENAL GLANDS The adrenal glands are also known as suprarenal glands because they are located above (superior) t the kidneys.
The inner portion of the adrenal glands is called the adrenal medulla.
The outer portion of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal cortex
The adrenal medulla secretes the fight or flight hormone called adrenaline or epinephrine
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight or flight) response include: 1. Tachycardia which means fast heart rate. 2. Hypertension which mans HBP
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight of flight) response includes: 3. Tachypnea which is fast breathing (ventilation) 4. Increased diameter ( lumina) of the bronchi and bronchioles called bronchodilation.
Changes that occur during the flight or fight response include 5. Increased diameter of the pupils called pupillary dilation.
Papillary dilation will increase the VF which stands for visual field
Changes that occur during the sympathetic fight or flight response include: 6. Shunting (diverting) blood from the periphery (skin) to the brain, heart, lungs, and large muscles of the arms and legs causing a color change called pallor (paleness)
Changes that occur during the sympathetic fight or flight response include: Conversion (changing) of glycogen (stored sugar in the liver) to glucose aka dextrose.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete a corticosteroid called Cortisol aka hydrocortisone
Physiologies (functions) of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include a. Assisting body cells to se glucose and fat for energy.
Glucose is one type of sugar and is aka dextrose
Physiologies (functions) of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include b. Reducing erythema (redness), edema (swelling) and pain associated with the body's protective reaction to trauma (injury) called inflammation.
Physiologies of cortisol include; c. Assisting the body with physical and mental tension called stress.
Hyperadrenalism means excessive cortisol
Hyperadrenalism is aka Cushing syndrome (CS)
Hypoadrenalism means deficient cortisol
Hypoadrenalism is caled Addison's disease (AD)
The adrenal cortex secretes a corticosteroid to regulate (control) electrolytes called Aldosterone
Electrolytes are salts
Electrolytes (salts) include a. Na which stands for sodium. b. K which stands for potassium
Electrolytes (salts) include c. Cl which stands for chloride d. Cas which stands for calcium. e. P which stands for phosphorus
Anabolic steroids, the type sometimes used by athletes are synthetic versions of the male sex hormone called testosterone
PANCREAS The pancreas is located retrogastric which means behind (posterior to) the stomavch
Physiologies of the pancreas include secretion of insulin when the blood sugar (BS) increases
Insulin allows glucose (dextrose) to enter the body cells causing the blood sugar (BS) to decease
Glucagon stimulates the liver to release stored sugar (glycogen) causing the blood sugar to increase
Insulin and glucogon are necessary to maintain a balance of the body's internal environment called homeostasis
Insulin is secreted by the pancreas when the blood sugar (BS) decreases
A random plasma glucose (RPG) is aka a BS which stands for blood sugar
A normal RPC or BS is less than <200 mg/dL
DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus can be caused by hypoinsulinism which means condition of deficient insulin
Insulin allows glucose to enter body cells causing the blood sugar to decrease
Diabetes mellitus in children is abbreviated IDDM which stands for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus aka juvenile onset diabetes mellitus aka type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most serious type of diabetes mellitus and requires a. Daily subcutaneous injections of insulin.
A synthetic insulin is called NovoLog
Type I diabetes mellutus is the most serious type of DM and requires b. Strict control of caloric intake c. Regular consistent exercise
Diabetes mellitus can also be caused y body cells resisting insulin abbreviated IRDM which stands for Insulin resistant diabetes mellitus
Insulin resistance diabetes mellitus (IRDM) is aka NIDDM which stands for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maturity onset diabetes mellitus or type II diabetes mellitus
Type II diabetes mellitus can often be controlled by oral medications called antidiabetics
Type II diabetes can often be controlled by Strict control of caloric intake Regular consisent exercise
Risk factors of DM include Heredity aka familial or genetic A waist size greater than 40 in men and 35 in women.
Risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) include Over consumption of refined sugars
Risk factors for DM include Over consumption of food
DM can be caued y hopoinsulinism which means condition of deficient insulin.
Risk factors forDM include a sedentary lifestyle which means little or no regular exercise
Risk factors for DM include Hyperglycemia during pregnancy called gestational diabetes mellitus around the 24th week
Risk factors for DM include Certain races such as African american Native American Asian American Hispanic american
Risk factors for DM include Chronic HTN which stands for persistent hypertension aka high blood pressure
Signs and symptoms of DM include a. Fatigue which means loss of energy. b. Loss of weight
Signs and symptoms of DM include c. Polyuria which means excessive urine production Polydipsia which means excessive thirst
Complications of diabetes mellitus include 1. MI which stands for myocardial infarction aka a heart attack. 2. CVA which stands for cerebrovascular accident
Complications of diabetes mellitus include 3. DR which stands for diabetic retinopathy which causes blindness.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include 4. RF which stands for renal failure aka kidney failure. 5. ED which stands for erectile dysfunction.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include 6. PAD which stands for peripheral artery disease.
Poor circulation caused by PAD can lead to tissue putrefaction (rot) called gangrene.
DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES Diagnostic blood tests include 1. OGTT which stands for oral glucose tolerance test Normal oral glucose tolerance test is less than 140 mg/dL
Diagnostic blood tests include 2. FBS which stands for fasting blood sugar aka FPG which stands for fasting plasma glucose. Normal fasting blood sugar or fasting plasma glucose is less than <100 mg/dL
Diagnostic blood tests include A1c which is an average blood sugar for the past 3 months. Normal A1c (HbA1c) is less than <5.7%
Diagnostic blood tests inclue PBI which stands for protein bound iodine
A protein bound iodine (PBI) is a TFT which stands for thyroid function test
Diagnostic blood tests include Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or hCG)
HCG (hCG) is a hormone present in the blood and/or urine during gestation aka pregnancy
HCG (hCG) is also known as an EPT which stands for early pregnancy test.
Created by: bterrelonge