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Chapters 4, 5, 6

ANPY 101 Ivy Tech Chapter 4 5 and 6

Consists of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a single or double-ringed nitrogenous base. Nucleotide
Double-stranded type of nucleic acid. DNA
In DNA, complementary base pairs are bound together by ______ bonds. Hydrogen
In DNA, adenine is the complementary base to Thymine
In DNA, guanine is the complementary base to Cytosine
Following cell division, each newly formed cell needs to to have the same genetic information (DNA) as the original cell. What process allows this to happen? DNA replication
What is the process of copying DNA called? DNA replication
The "genetic code" is contained within the nucleotide sequences of what type of organic molecule? DNA
Three differences between DNA and RNA. 1. DNA is double-stranded; RNA is single-stranded. 2. DNA uses thymine; RNA uses uracil. 3. DNA uses deoxyribose; RNA uses ribose
The process of synthesizing mRNA within the nucleus of a cell. Transcription
The first set of reactions that occurs during cellular respiration is called Glycolysis
What requires oxygen and occurs in the cytosol? Aerobic respiration
An energy storing molecule, that is stored in the liver, and is a branching chain of glucose molecules. Glycogen
What stored molecules are catabolized and released into the blood stream as blood glucose levels fall? Glycogen
Name three classes of organic molecules that can be metabolized to produce ATP. Carbohydrate Lipid Protein
The type of nucleic acid that is in the form of a double helix. DNA
What is produced by the process of DNA replication? Two complete DNA molecules; each with one old strand and one new strand.
What is determined by the order of nitrogenous bases along a segment of DNA (a gene)? The order of amino acids in a protein.
What is a segment of DNA ? A gene.
The process of copying the information encoded in DNA to produce RNA is called Transcription
Electrons released during the citric acid cycle are picked up by electron carriers and delivered to the electron transport chain.
Two items describe aerobic respiration. Oxygen is required and it occurs in the mitochondria.
Lipase enzyme Lipid substrate
Protease enzyme Protein substrate
Amylase enzyme Statch substrate
The part of an enzyme molecule that combines with its substrate? Active site
What is formed when a substrate binds to the active site of an enzyme. enzyme-substrate complex
What kind of reaction means an enzyme may catalyze the reaction in both directions? Reversible reaction.
Events occurring during an enzyme-catalyzed reaction in the correct order. 1. Substrate binds to active site on enzyme. 2. Chemical bonds within substrate are altered, reducing energy needed for reaction to occur. 3. Reatcion occurs, resulting in a formation of product. 4. Product is released from active site.
What will happen to the rate of reaction if the concentration of reactants decreases? The reaction rate will decrease.
What three factors can denature an enzyme? 1. Heat 2. Radiation 3. Extremes in pH
What occurs during the process of transcription? DNA is copied to produce RNA.
Put in order of increasing size: nucleotide, genome, chromosome, nitrogenous base, gene nitrogenous base, nucleotide, gene, chromosome, genome
If one strand of DNA has the sequence of TCAGGCTATTCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is what? AGTCCGATAAGGGC Adenine to Thiamine Guanine to Cytosine
The complement of the nitrogenous base Adenine is Thiamine or Uracil
The complement of the nitrogenous base Guanine is Cytosine
DNA replication occurs during interphase of the cell cycle
How many codons specify the 20 types of amino acids? 61
What does this describe? It has cytosine as one of its four nitrogenous bases, it includes ribose, a 5-carbon sugar, it is transcribed in the nucleus and enters the cytoplams RNA
New nucleotides pair with exposed bases, under the direction of what? DNA polymerase
A sequence of 3 nucleotides that represents an amino acid, or signals the beginning or end of a protein triplet code
Aligns amino acids during protein synthesis, along the mRNA strand on the ribosome. Transfer RNA
AUG, codes for methionine and signals the start of a protein initiation codon
Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of DNA but not RNA? Thymine
Which of the nitrogenous bases is part of RNA but not DNA? Uracil
What does this describe: Stores genetic information, including instructions for enzymes that synthesize fats and carbohydrates. DNA
Copying DNA information into an mRNA molecule is called transcription
Transcription produces RNA
Translation produces protein
Codons are a part of mRNA
anticodons are a part of tRNA
The genome sequences of different individuals are about 99.9% alike
The bond connection the complementary base pairs of DNA Hydrogen Bond
Organelles composed of rRNA and protein molecules Ribosomes
0.1% of the genome that varies among people includes what three things? health, appearance, and no observable effects
What are the two types of mutations in the DNA? Spontaneous and induced
Spontaneous mutations are due to insertion of unstable base into DNA sequence
Induced mutations are due to exposure to mutagens, chemical or radiation that cause the mutation
What changes the DNA sequence and occur when bases are changed, added, or deleted? Mutations
Building blocks of DNA; three parts: sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base. Nucleotides
Made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around histones that support its structure Chromosome
Small portion of the genome that codes for proteins Exome. The exome consists of all the genome's exons, which are the coding portions of genes
A weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other hydroden bond
Four basic types of body tissues Muscle, epithelial, connective, nervous
Study of tissues histology
Intercellular junction that functions as a rivet or spot weld desmosome
Type of intercellular junction that forms tubular channels gap junction
Type of intercellular junction that consists of fused membranes tight juction
Functions of epithelial tissue secretion, absorption and protection
Type of tissue through which gases are exchanged between the blood and the the lungs simple squamous epithelium
Merocrine, apocrine, and holocrine sections differ in the amount of cytoplasm secreted along with the glandular product
Type of tissue that lines the follicles of the thyroid glands simple cuboidal epithelium
Type of epithelium that secretes into ducts that open onto surfaces like skin or into body fluids is glandular epithelium
Type of tissue contains collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and gel-like ground substance areolar tissue
Tendons and ligaments are composed primarly of dense regular connective tissue
cartilage tissues are likely to be slow in healing following an injury because chondrocytes do not have direct blood supplies
Collagen is a major component of bone, connective tissue, ligaments and tendons
Adipose tissue is a form of connective tissue
What type of membrane lines tubes and cavities that open to the outside of the body mucous membrane
How many types of muscle cells are there 3
Involuntary muscle tissues are smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue
Smooth muscle tissue can be found in the walls of hollow organs such as the Stomach, Esophagus, Bronchi and in the walls of blood vessels
Muscle tissue that can be consciously controlled is skeletal muscle tissue
Consists of protein fibers and ground substance; consistency varies from fluid to semisolid to solid; includes glycoproteins, consists of a basement membrane and interstitial matrix Extracellular matrix
Two or more tissues grouped together that function together is an organ
Tissue type that conducts impulses for coordination, regulation, integration and sensory reception Nervous tissue
Three shapes of epithelial tissue squamous, cuboidal and columnar
Three layer TYPES of epithelial tissue simple, stratified, pseudostratified
Top layer of elongated cells, cube shaped cells in deeper layers, lines part of the male urethra ducts of exocrine glands stratified columnar
Cube-shaped and elongated cells with increased tention; stretches, lines urinary bladder, ureters and part of urethra transitional epithileum - uroepithelium
Secrete into tissue fluid or blood endocrine glands
The human integumentary system includes skin, nails, hair follicles, and sweat glands
In areas of the skin where the epidermis is thin the stratum lucidum may be missing
Assessment in the percentage of burn used to determine clinical care Rule of Nines
As cells are used from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface they die
Keeps out harmful chemicals and pathogens, protects the skin against mechanical injury, retains water in the deeper skin layers epidermis
Two sensory receptors that can be found in the dermis lamellate corpuscles and Meissner's corpuscles`
The dermis is usually thicker than the epidermis T/F True
The dermis contains smooth muscle and nervous tissue T/F True
The epidermis is composed of stratified squamous epithelium T/F True
The nail consists of a nail bed and nail plate
The hardness of a nail comes from keratin
Shafts of hair are composed of dead epidermal cells
Most active growing region of the nail; pale, half-moon-shaped lunula
Hair is present on all surfaces of the skin except palms. soles, lips, nipples, parts f external reproductive organs
The layer of the epidermis that includes melanocytes and a single row of columnar cells that under mitosis is the stratum basale
Blood vessels in the _____ supply epidermal cells with nutrients dermis
Skin cells play an important role in producing Vitamin D
The functions of skin include Regulating body temperature, acting as a protective covering, housing sensory receptors
The arrector pili muscle is attached to a hair follicle
Gland responds primarily to body temperature eccrine
Sweat cools the body by evaporation
A burn affecting only the epidermis is a superficial partial-thickness burn
Skin is also called cutaneous membrane
Contains blood vessels to nourish the hair hair papilla
Hair loss is associated with lowered level of _____ in men or _____ in women testosterone, estrogen
What produces sebum, which consists of fatty material and cellular debris sebaceous glands
What type of gland secretes ear wax ceruminous gland
5 layers of the epidermis Stratum corneum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum spinosum, Stratum basale
the major sweat glands of the human body, found in virtually all skin, with the highest density in palm and soles, then on the head, but much less on the trunk and the extremities Sweat glands, merocrine glands, eccrine glands.
Created by: spritle



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