Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Back & Spine

Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Sp column functions Support & move head; Transmit & protect sp cord; support thorax & abdomen; transmit weight to lower limbs; provide framework for lower extremity
Sp column 5 vert types Cervical (7); Thoracic (12); Lumbar (5); Sacral (5) (fused); Coccygeal (3-4) (fused)
Vert canal (foramen): produced by: Vertebrae stacked w/vert foramina lined up
Cervical vert: typical features Small vert body; short spinous & transverse processes (spinous processes increase in size inferiorly)
Thoracic Vert features Long spinous process; Articular facets for ribs; Intermediately sized vertebral body
Thoracic Vert transverse processes Long transverse processes: articulate w ribs; some of these create indentation in aorta??
Lumbar vert features Largest vert body; Intermediate spinous and transverse processes; Gaps btw laminae allow access to vert canal
Compare zygopaphyses of diff verts Cervical = horizontal (sloped ant to post); thoracic = vertical; lumbar = wrapped
Spinal Column Movements: Cervical vertebrae Flexion/ extension; Some lateral flexion; Limited rotation
Spinal Column Movements: Thoracic vertebrae Rotation; Some lateral flexion
Spinal Column Movements: Lumbar vertebrae Flexion/ extension; Lateral flexion
Sacral & Coccygeal vert: fusion Initially fuse along lateral processes (wings); then bodies also fuse (at later age)
Relevance of Sacral & Coccygeal vert fusion May have relevance to devt/anatomy of pelvic outlet
Hemivertebra Results from lack of blood flow to half the vert body; results in curvature of spine
Vert Trauma/ Pathology include: Vert fractures (Pars interarticularis fx; Compression fracture); Spinal stenosis
2 intervert joint types Synovial joints (articular processes); have capsule; Intervertebral discs
Spine ligaments Ligamentum nuchae; Supraspinous lig; Interspinous lig; Ant/Post longitudinal ligs; Ligamentum flavum
Trapezius attach To nuchal region of occ bone & spinous processes (cerv & thoracic); insertion all along scapular spine
Transversospinales mxs attach: multifidus vs semispinalis Multifidus crosses fewer vert levels than semispinalis; semispinalis capitis runs up to occ region
Suboccipital mxs attach: To spinous processes of C1 and C2, transverse process of C1, and occipital bone
Suboccipital mxs (list) Rectus capitis posterior minor; Rectus capitis posterior major; Obliquus capitis inferior; Obliquus capitis superior
These form occipital triangle Rectus capitis posterior major; Obliquus capitis inferior; Obliquus capitis superior
Rectus capitis posterior major attaches: To occ bone; forms medial border of subocc triangle; assist in Yes movements
Obliqu cap inf attaches: To inf process of C1; "No" movements (w/obliquus capitis superior); rotating C1 around C2 dens
Extent of sp cord Foramen magnum to L1/L2 in adults; occupies superior 2/3s of vert canal; cervical & lumbar enlargements
Conus medullaris Inf termination of sp cord; typically L1-L2 (but can be T12 or L3); lower in neonates (L3-L4)
Meninges: parts Epidural space; Dura mater; Arachnoid mater (Subarachnoid space); Pia mater
Epidural (=extradural) space Btw vert canal & dura mater; filled with fat, connective tissue, veins; epidural anesthesia
LP: path Skin -> intrinsic back muscles -> ligamentum flavum -> dural sac -> arachnoid mater -> CSF; Perform under conus medullaris; usu L3 or L4
Sp cord arteries Ant/post spinal a. (from vert arts.); Segmental spinal arteries (from intercostal a.)
Primary curvatures of spine Concave anteriorly; Develop in fetus; thoracic/sacral
Secondary curvatures of spine Convex anteriorly; develop in infancy; cervical/lumbar
Hunchback deformity Thoracic kyphosis
Thoracic kyphosis hunchback
Lumbar lordosis swayback
Sp column movements Flexion/ Extension; Lateral Flexion/ Bending; Rotation
Articular facets AKA zygapophyses
Vertebrae: Most of body wt transmitted: vert body
intervert foramen prod by: verts stacked on each other
vertebral arch = pedicle + lamina
Spina bifida Severe to benign; Spina bifida occulta= approx 10%
Scoliosis: congenital form = Often accompanied by other devt anomalies
Fused vertebrae Non-segmentation
Sacrum has facets for articulation with: pelvic bone
Pars interarticularis fracture Spondylolysis/ spondylolisthesis (slippage of vert body)
Compression fracture Osteoporosis; Tuberculosis
Spinal stenosis Narrowing of vertebral canal
Passes thru ver foramen vertebral a.
Dens of C2 attaches to: C1 above
C1 vert body C1: no vert body; actually fused to C2
Atlanto-occipital joint movement Neck flexion/ extension; “YES”
Atlanto-axial joint movement Neck rotation; “NO”
Sacral vertebrae 5 vert fuse in late adolescence
Coccygeal vertebrae 3-4 vert fuse to one another (and often to sacrum)
Intervertebral discs symphyses btw vert bodies (no capsule); Annulus fibrosis & Nucleus pulposis
IV disks names for: verts they are between: "disk T4/5"
First palpable vert C7
Level of inf angle of scapula T7
Level of iliac crest L4
Intermediate extrinsic back mx Serratus posterior superior; Serratus posterior inferior
Extrinsic back mx innervation ventral ramus
Intrinsic back mx innervation dorsal ramus
Trapezius innervated by: CN XI
Trapezius action Raise scapula
Lat dorsi attach: along sp processes (thoracic & lumbar); inserts on humerus
Lev scap attach: fr transverse processes (cervical) to sup border of scapula
Rhomboid attach: to medial border of scap to spinous processes
Vert devt: 1 ossificn ctr for vert body and 2 oss ctrs for vert arches
Extrinsic back mx’s fn Attach appendicular skeleton of upper extremity to axial skeleton
Extrinsic back mx’s (list) Trapezius; Lat dorsi; Levator scapulae; Rhomboid major/ minor
Triangle of auscultn Sup lat dorsi, medial scapula, & inferolateral trapezius
Extrinsix Intermediate mx’s fn In respn
Intrinsic mx covered by: Thoracolumbar fascia
Intrinsic mx: superficial groups Erector spinae mxs; Splenius mxs (AKA spinotransversales)
Suboccipital mx action shake head yes or no
Intrinsic back mx fibers Very long; as go longer/deeper, get shorter (nesting dolls)
Iliocostalis mx Ilium, TL fascia to ribs or transverse processes
Longissimus mx attach: to transverse processes & to ribs; from iliac crest/sacrum
Longissimus mx: cranial segment (to mastoid process); Longissimus capitis
Spinalis mx attach: to spinous processes
Primary extensors of head and back = Erector spinae mxs
Erector spinae mxs bilateral function = maintain posture
Erector spinae mxs unilateral function = lateral flexion/rotation of head (ipsilateral side)
Main mxs used to maintain posture iliocostalis (most lateral of erector spinae mxs)
Splenius mxs (list) Splenius capitis; Splenius cervicis
Splenius capitis attach: Spinous processes -> occipital
Splenius cervicis attach: Spinous processes -> cervical transverse processes
Splenius mxs fns Extend or rotate head
Splenius mxs bilateral action head/ neck extension
Splenius mxs unilateral action rotate head/ neck to ipsilateral side
Transversospinales mxs fn Extend back or rotate trunk
Transversospinales mxs bilateral action = extend vertebral column
Transversospinales mxs unilateral action = rotate trunk to contralateral side
Levatores costarum attach: Transverse process to ribs
Intertransversarius attach: Btw adjacent transverse processes
Interspinales attach: Btw adjacent spinous processes
Segmental muscles Fn to elevate ribs and stabilize adjoining vertebrae
Suboccipital mxs: location Deep to splenius and semispinalis capitis
Will see _____ inside subocc triangle vert art. (runs up, turns left, joins vert art from other side)
Greater occ nerve locn: just below subocc triangle
Sp cord parts Foramen magnum; Conus medullaris; Cauda equina; Filum terminale
Cauda equina AKA “horse’s tail”; Elongated lumbosacral nerves
Sp cord devt: sp cord grows slower than vert canal
Dura mater Dural Sac (ends at S2)
Subarachnoid space Lumbar cistern (inside dural sac): subarachnoid epidural
LP not indicated with: increased intracranial pressure (risk of brainstem herniation)
Sp cord veins Ant/post spinal veins; Internal vertebral plexus
Extrinsix Intermediate mx’s attach Along sp column & attach to ribs
Intrinsic back mxs enclosed by Thoracolumbar fascia: (some of the mx originate off TL fascia)
Intrinsic mx: deep groups Transversospinales mxs; Segmental mxs; Suboccipital mxs
Erector spinae mxs: 3 groups Iliocostalis; Longissimus; Spinalis
Transversospinales mxs attach: Transverse process superiorly to spinous process
Transversospinales mxs (list) Semispinalis; Semispinalis capitis; Multifidus; Rotatores
Segmental muscles (list) Levatores costarum; Intertransversarius; Interspinales
LP: usu perform @ L3-L4? filum terminale = projection of pia mater to anchor ? to coccyx
Interruption to segmental spinal arteries may cause: Necrosis of spcord & loss of fn
Created by: Abarnard