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PATH: CH Defects

Getting organized

Concordance main categories Shunting, Stenosis, Atresia, and Abnormal Valve (S and A)
Discordance Ventriculo-arterial issues and Veins
When does PBF increase increases in all but decreases in 1) tetrology of Fallot 2) Ebsteins anomaly 3) pulmonary atresia or SEVERE stenosis and stays the same in any other mild to moderate stenosis
what are the shunting defects of the heart 1) atrial septal defect 2) ventricular septal defect 3) atrioventricular septal defect 4) patent ductus arteriosus
what are the stenotic defects pulmonary, aortic, and aortic coarctation
what are the atresias Pulmonary, aortic and hypoplastic Left heart
who is cyanotic and who is not all discordance defects and atresias and Ebstein's anomaly (who are in concordance)
who is the abnormal valve defect ebstein's anomaly
who is the ventriculo-arterial discordance defect tetralogy of Fallow, transposition of the great vessels and truncus arteriosus
what is the vein defect total anomalous pulmonary venous return
GRA = Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism (HTN) auto dominant chromosome 8q results in ectopic aldosterone production via ACTH
AME - apparent mineralcorticoid excess (HTN) Autosomal recessive chromosome 16q inactivating mutation of B hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to there is more cortisol stimulating the mineralcorticoid receptor
Liddle Syndrome (HTN) Autosomal Dominant on 16p gain of function mutation that causes sustain sodium channel activity independent of mineralcorticoids
fibromuscular dysplasia of the kidney arterial dysplasia resulting in renal ischemia in young to middle aged women
Pheochromocytoma a tumor of the adrenal medulla that results in secreted catecholamines that stimulate the alpha adrenergic receptors increasing resistance and contractility
Primary Hyperaldosteronism Conn's syndrome (adrenal cortical adenoma that is idiopathic and causes bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (Conn's)
glomerular hyperfiltration ang II causes preferential vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles resulting in hyperfiltration with sustained increase in glomerular pressure and damage to the glomerular basement membrane (ang II also makes tubules secreted tubal fibrosising factors)
cerebrovascular complications of hypertension hemorrhage, atheroembolic stroke, lacunar type infarct, dementia,
chronic hypertension can make? chrcot bouchard aneurysms with can rupture commonly in the putamen caudate, thalamus, pons, cerebellum
Malignant Nephrosclerosis fibrinoid necrosis of the arterioles, onin skin ateriosclerosis, hypercellular glomeruli (from malignant hypertension
hypertensive encephalopathy cerebral edema as a result of malignant hypertension increased intracranial pressure headaches and vomiting with confusion and coma
Papilledema and retinal hemorrhage edema of the optic nerve and ruptured retinal arterioles you may see cotton wool spots and flame hemorrhage
Created by: jmuame03