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Articulations/Joints

ch9 of Tortora Anatomy/Phys textbook

QuestionAnswer
Name the 3 (structural) joint classifications. Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial
Name the 3 (functional) joint classifications. Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, and Diarthrosis
Define Synarthrosis. immovable joint(ex: skull sutures)
Define Amphiarthrosis. slightly movable joint(ex: ribs that connect to sternum)
Define Diarthrosis. freely movable joint(ex: shoulder, hip, elbow, knee,etc.)
True or false:Cartilaginous joints have a synovial cavity. FALSE
Define Syndesmosis. a slightly movable (amphiarthrosis) articulation where there is greater distance between the bones and more fibrous ct than in a suture.
Define Gomphosis (dentoalveolar joint). a synarthrosis fibrous joint where a cone-shaped peg fits into a socket. (**The ONLY gomphoses are the teeth in the jawbone)
What are the TWO types of cartilaginous joints? Synchondrosis and Symphysis
Define Synchondrosis. a cartilaginous joint where the connecting material is hyaline cartilage.(ex: epiphyseal plate)
Define Symphysis. a cartilaginous joint where the bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage connects the bones.(ex: pubis symphysis)
All Symphyses occur where in the body? in the midline of the body(ex: pubic symphysis)
What type of functional classification is a symphysis? Amphiarthrosis, slightly movable joint
What are the 3 main functions of synovial fluid? 1. Lubricates joints2. Nourishes articular cartilage3. Contains phagocytic cells to remove debris from joint
What are the 5 main characteristics of synovial joints? 1. synovial cavity2. articular cartilage3. articular capsule4. synovial fluid5. reinforcing ligaments (extracapsular ligaments and intracapsular ligaments)
What are the pads of fibrocartilage inside some synovial joints? **Hint-example is in the knee** articular discs aka menisci
What is a sprain? wrenching or twisting of a joint that stretches or tears its ligaments but does NOT dislocate the bone.
What is a strain? a stretched or partially torn muscle
What is the purpose of a bursa? alleviate friction in some joints such as the shoulder and knee joints.
What are tendon sheaths? tubelike bursae that wrap around certain tendons that experience considerable friction; point is to reduce friction at joints
What is a bursitis? An acute or chronic inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by repeated exertion of a joint
What is circumduction? movement of the distal end of a body part in a circle(ex: moving the hand in a circle at the wrist joint)
What is the difference between ABduction and ADDuction? abduction=movement of a bone AWAY from the midlineadduction=movement of bone TOWARDS the midline
Name the SIX catagories that synovial joints are divided into based on movement. 1. Planar2. Hinge3. Pivot4. Condyloid5. Saddle6. Ball-and-Socket
Give an example of a pivot joint. atlanto-axial joint where the atlas rotates around the axis and lets the head turn from side to side
Created by: Bookworm10