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VNPT51 CH.19 Terms

VNPT51 CH.19 Nutritional Concepts and Related Therapies

TermDefinition
Amino Acids the building blocks of protein approx 20, but only 9 are essential amino acids
anabolism the body is building more tissue than it is breaking down
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by self-imposed starvation.
basal metabolic rate (BMR) the energy required to maintain necessary, involuntary body functions to digest nutrients, and for physical activity.
body mass index (BMI) a number calculated from a person's weight and height.
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by periods of binge eating followed by purging or other inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gained.
catabolism occurs when insufficient protein is being taken in and the body is breaking down more tissue than is it building
cholesterol is a lipid belonging to a class of chemical substances called sterols
dietary fiber foods that humans cannot break down (digest).
dumping syndrome combination of profuse perspiration, nausea, vertigo, and weakness experienced by patients who have had a subtotal gastrectomy; symptoms are felt soon after eating when the contents of the stomach empty too rapidly into the duodenum.
enteral nutrition administration of nutrients into the GI tract.
essential nutrients are nutrients that the body cannot make in the amounts essential for good health; therefore, it is necessary to obtain these nutrients through the diet or from other sources
glycogen is the stored form of carbohydrates. it is made from simple sugars and stored mainly in the liver and in muscles. it is used when the body's glucose level is low
hydrogenation process in which hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it more solid and stable to rancidity.
kilocalorie (kcal) a measurement of energy, much as a pound is a measurement of weight
lipids are organic substances of a fatty nature that are insoluble in water and necessary for good health. both fats and cholesterol are lipids
lipoproteins are molecules made of lipids surrounded by protein
medical nutrition therapy is the use of specific nutritional variations to build good health.
nitrogen balance is achieved when the amt of nitrogen (protein) taken in is = to the amt of nitrogen excreted in the urine
nutrient is a chemical compound or element found in food that is necessary for good health
nutrient-dense foods foods that contain large amounts of nutrients in relation to kilocalories.
obesity is defined as an excess of adipose tissue or body fat above the level considered healthy.
parenteral nutrition intravenous feedings. can be given in several ways: through peripheral veins, such as those in the arms or the legs and through a large central vein.
pernicious anemia a progressive macrocytic megaloblastic anemia
residue bulk in the colon that includes undigested food, fiber, bacteria, body secretions and cells.
satiety a feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food. carries the fat soluble vitamins A,D,E and K
therapeutic diet a diet used as a medical treatment.
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration of a hypertonic solution into the superior vena cava by way of a catheter threaded through either the subclavian vein or the internal jugular vein.
tube feeding administration of nutritionally balanced, liquefied foods or formula through a tube inserted into the stomach, the duodenum, or the jejunum by the way of a nasogastric tube or an ostomy.
vegan excludes all animal products need vitamin b12
Created by: barragan_93230