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Chapter Five:

The Skeletal System

Axial Skeleton The bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body
Appendicular Skeleton The bones of the limbs and girdles
Compact Bone Dense and looks smooth and homogeneous
Spongy Bone Composed of small needle-like pieces of bones and lots of open space
Diaphysis Shaft, makes up most of the bone's length and is composed of compact bone
Periosteum A fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers and protects the diaphysis
Epiphyses The ends of the long bone --- consists of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone
Osteocytes The mature bone cells that are found in tiny cavities within the lacunae (matrix)
Ossification The process of bone formation that involves two major phases
Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells that completely cover the hyaline cartilage model
Osteoclasts Giant bone-destroying cells in bones --- break down bone matrix and release calcium ions into the blood
Fracture A break
Reduction The realignment of the broken bone ends
Hematoma A blood-filled swelling formed after a bone breaks
Styloid Process A sharp, needle-like projection, is just inferior to the external auditory
Fontanels Fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones
Intervertebral Disc Pads of flexible fibrocartialage that separate the vertebrae --- cushion the vertebrae and absorb shocks while allowing the spine flexibility
Synarthroses Immoveable joints
Amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joints
Diarthroses Freely movable joints
Bursae Flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid
Arthritis Describes over one hundred different inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints
Osteoporosis A bone-thinning disease that afflicts half of women over sixty-five and some twenty percent of men over the age of seventy --- makes the bones so fragile that even a hug or a sneeze can cause bones to fracture
Created by: sarah23me1



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