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APHUG CH 9&11
Ap Human Geography
|What are the NIC countries?
|Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Vietnam(BRICS)
|What are the four dragon/tiger countries? Reason for their success?
|South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong. They focused on producing manufacturing goods(Clothing and Electronics). Low labor costs enabled them to sell products inexpensively in developed countries.
|What are the results of industry moving to developing countries?
|decline in manufacturing jobs in Europe, US & other MDC's
|Where did the Industrial Revolution begin? How did it diffuse?
|It began in the UK and diffused into mainland Europe(Belgium, Netherlands, & France every 10 years; Last to receive--> Russia & eastern Europe) b/c coal fields connection via water to a port in flow of capital.
|What is the clustering of similar industries called?
|What are quaternary activities? Examples?
|A knowledge based sector that includes research and development, business consulting, financial services, education, public administration, and software development.
|What are examples of semi-periphery countries?
|Chile, Brazil, India, China, and Indonesia(MCRIBS)
|What are maquiladoras? Where are they located? Advantages to companies?
|They are plants in Mexico near the U.S. border. They receive tax breaks if they ship materials from the U.S., assemble at the maquiladora plant in Mexico, and export finished product to the U.S.
|What is the Hotelling Locational Interdependence Theory?
|competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.
|What are cottage industries?
|Home-based manufacturing found prior to the Industrial Revolution
|Name the three main site factors.
|Labor Capital and Land. Main factor is Labor.
|Name the main situation factor.
|What are bulk gaining industries? Bulk reducing? Examples?
|makes something that gains weight or volume during production(ex. fabricated metals and beverage production) when inputs weigh more than the final product(ex. Copper mining and smelting)
|What are special economic zones? What country are they most common in?
|specific area within a country in which tax and investment incentives are implemented to attract foreign (and domestic) businesses and investment. Most common in China & Bangladesh
|What is outsourcing? Where does the US outsource secondary jobs? Tertiary jobs?
|contracting work out to noncompany employees or other companies. Mexico, Japan, SK & Germany.
|What happens at break of bulk areas? Examples?
|location where transfer among transportation modes is possible(ex. seaports and airports or truck and boat)
|Where has the US manufacturing belt been traditionally located? (Specific cities)
|extends from the northeastern seaboard to Iowa and from the St. Lawrence Valley to the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.?
|What is Immanuel Wallerstein’s theory? What has hurt the developing countries?
|developed countries form an inner core area, whereas developing countries occupy peripheral locations?
|What are the factors the Least Cost Theory is most concerned with? Most important factor?
|Transportation, Labor and Agglomeration. Transportation
|What is Rostow’s Model? (all five stages) Advantages? Disadvantages?
|model of growth and advancement that all developed economies pass through. Traditional Society, Pre-Condition for Takeoff, Takeoff, Drive to Maturity & High Mass Consumption
|What are some barriers to international investment?
|tariffs, quotas and license
|What are some weakness to the self- sufficiency model? Advantages?
|Inefficient businesses are protected. A large bureaucracy is developed to take care of tariffs, restricting importers, etc. Investment is spread as equally as possible across all sectors of a country's economy and in all regions.
|What is fair trade? The purpose of fair trade?
|emphasizes small businesses and worker owned & democratically run cooperatives & requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organization & comply with minimum environmental & safety standards. Fair wages & better living conditions
|What are the BRIC countries?
|countries expected to dominate global manufacturing. Brazil, Russia, India and China
|What are the G- 7 countries?
|France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, US and Canada. Most advanced colonies in the world.
|What is the backwash effect? Examples?
|When other regions suffer of drain of resources and talent because of agglomeration(ex.California's Silicon Valley took most high-tech industry workers so other regions were left without their resources and talents and thus suffered the backwash effect)
|What are examples of countries mainly primary? Secondary? Tertiary?
|Primary: Ethiopia Secondary: UK Tertiary : US
|What is HDI? What factors make up HDI?
|indicator of the level of development for each country. A decent standard of living, long healthy life and access to knowledge.
|What does right to work mean? Effect? What parts of the country are mainly impacted? Why?
|A worker does NOT have to join a union to get a job. Mainly in south
|What is the NAFTA agreement? How did it impact US? Mexico?
|agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries. Loss of US jobs. Helped maquiladoras end tariffs.
|What are Europe’s main industrial areas? Main industrial areas in the world?
|UK, Rhine-Ruhr Valley, Mid-Rhine, Po Basin, Northeastern Spain, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Urals, Volga, Kuznetsk, Donetsk and Silesia. Europe, North America and Asia.
|What is a conglomerate? Examples?
|one massive corporation that owns and operates a collection of smaller companies – might own a bottling company and a food-coloring company( Time Warner, Phillip Morris, Kraft Foods, General Electric, Johnson and Johnson and Walt Disney Company)
|What is GII and how is it calculated?
|Measures the extent of each country's gender inequality. Empowerment, labor and reproductive health.
|How is US doing on GII and why?
|it has a low GII ranking b/c reproductive rates are low and percentage of women in the national legislature is much lower than other high HDI countries
|Precondition for Take-Off
|Drive to maturity
|High Mass Consumption