Normal Size Small Size show me how
physical growth, maturation, and aging
|What influences physical growth and aging?
|Genetics and Extrinsic factors
|What happens as we grow and age?
|the 3 constraints (individual, task, environment) are always changing in order to help the desired movement.
|Imagine you are a 6th grade coach, how much variation would you expect to see in height and weight?
|Yes because they are in that period of puberty and having growth spurts.
|Imagine you are a 6th grade coach, would you assign positions based on size?
|no, you move the kids around and have they all play at least each position once.
|Imagine you are a 6th grade coach, your players come back for a new season, would you assign new positions?
|Yes, because the kids grow
|The talents and limitations that each individual brings to a task are often influenced by
|prenatal growth and development
|What determines the normal aspects of development and inherits abnormal development
|The growing embryo is also very sensitive to
|What affects the baby during prenatal development
|Genes and extrinsic factors
|Prenatal development phase 1
|embryonic growth (conception - 8 weeks)
|Prenatal development phase 2
|Fetal growth (8 weeks - birth)
|What happens in Phase 1?
|fusion of the ovum and sperm, the number of cells increase and differentiate
|the process wherein cells become specialized, forming specific tissues and organs - cells increase as well as function changes
|What happens in phase 2?
|growth is continued because of hyperplasia, hypertrophy, cephalocaudal, and proximidistal
|an increase in the absolute number of cells
|an increase in the relative size of an individual cell - Actual size, not number
|the direction of growth beginning at the head and extending toward the lower body (head to trunk)
|the direction of growth proceeding from the body toward the extremities ( growing outwards)
|in regard to growth, it is the ability of tissues to subsume functions otherwise carried out by other tissues (being adaptable)
|the extrinsic factor that has the most controllable influence on fetal development
|Why is maternal health status so important in prenatal development?
|The growing fetus needs energy, nutrients, and oxygen. If these are in short supply, mother and fetus compete for limited resources, possibly compromising the needs of the fetus
|Low birth weight
|infants (less than 2500 g- 5lbs) are at greater risk of disease, infection, and death in the weeks after birth than are normal-weight infants
|anomalies present at birth, regardless of whether their causes are genetic or extrinsic
|What are genetic causes of abnormalities
|Dominant and recessive disorders
|when one parent passes on a defective gene
|occur in children who inherit a defective gene from each parent
|also result from the alteration or deletion of a gene during formation of the egg or sperm cell
|Trisomy 21/ Down syndrome (genetic cause)
|Sperm cell with 23 chromosomes from each parent (46)but has a extra chromosome in in the 21st (47)
|Teratogen (extrinsic cause)
|any drug or chemical agent that causes abnormal development in a fetus upon exposure
|What can parents do to maximize fetal growth and development?
|-proper nutrients -avoiding illness -Sanitation -Active --> depending on trimester & lifestyle -STI checks regularly
|Overall growth follows what pattern?
|pattern of a graph of overall growth is universal but the timing and steepness of segments of the curve are specific to the individual, and with advancing age the influence of environmental factors increases the variation among individuals
|sex differences are minimal
|girls mature faster than boys
|Age of take off
|the age at which the rate of growth beings to increase
|Height growth rate
|Infancy = rapid increase Childhood = steady growth Adolescent growth spurt = rapid increase Tapers off until the end of growth period
|weight is very susceptible to
|Peak weight velocity follows what
|peal height velocity
|specific body parts, tissues, and organs have...
|differential rates of growth
|the developmental process leading to a state of full function
|Secondary sex characteristics
|aspects of form or structure appropriate to males or females, often used to assess physiological maturity in adolescents
|relatively rapid physical growth of the body to recover some or all potential growth lost during a period of negative extrinsic influence. It occurs once the negative influence is removed
|What are some environmental/extrinsic factors that influence postnatal growth?
|-food -activity level -injuries –air pollution -stress response -cope -socioeconomic status
|The changes in the size and status of our body reflects
|Extrinsic (e.g., diet) and intrinsic (e.g., aging tissues - spine compression) factors
|Why do we decrease in size?
|the compression and flattening of the body’s connective tissues, especially the cartilage pads between the vertebrae in the Spinal column
|will we always increase in weight?
|Imagine you are a doctor. As your patients enter their 50s, what might you do to decrease the likelihood of a hip fracture due in part to bones that have lost density?
|More calcium/change diet Weight baring exercise program Avoid drinking and smoking Avoid rugs and cords
|what influences physical growth and aging
|Both nature and nurture