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Language of Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Define Anatomy Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts. Observation is used to see sizes and relationships of parts.
What are the two levels of anatomy? Gross Anatomy and Microscopic Anatomy.
What do the two levels of anatomy do? Gross anatomy: large; easily observable structures. Microscopic anatomy: structures too small to be seen with the naked eye; cells and tissues.
Define Physiology Study of how the boy and its parts work or function. *Structure determines functions*
What are the 6 levels of structural organization? 1. Atoms 2. Cells 3. Tissues 4. Organs 5. Organ System 6. Organisms
What does the word physiology do for our body and give an example? Structure determines what functions can occur. Example: The air sacs of the lungs have very thin walls, a feature that enables them to exchange gases and provide oxygen to the body.
What is the Skeletal System and what does it do? 1. Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints. 2. Provides muscle attachments for movement. 3. Protects vital organs. 4. Site of blood cell formation. 5. Store minerals.
What is the Muscular System and what does it do? 1. Skeletal muscles contract (or shorten) 2. Produces movement of bones.
What is the Endocrine System and what does it do? 1. Secretes hormones into the blood. 2. Body functions controlled by hormones include: *growth *reproduction *use of nutrients
What is the Respiratory System and what does it do? 1. Gases are exchanged with the blood through air sacs in the lungs. 2. Supplies the body with oxygen. 3. Removes carbon dioxide.
What is the Integumentary System and what does it do? 1. Forms the external body covering (skin) and includes hair and fingernails. 2. Waterproofs the body. 3. Cushions and protects deeper tissue from injury. 4. Provides vitamin D with the help of sunlight.
(CONT.) What is the Integumentary System and what does it do? 5. Excretes salts in perspiration. 6. Helps regulate body temperature.
What is the Lymphatic System and what does it do? 1. Includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid organs. 2. complements the cardiovascular system by returning leaked fluids back into the blood stream.
(CONT.) What is the Lymphatic System and what does it do? 3. Lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs cleanse the blood. 4. Houses white blood cells, which are involved in immunity.
What is the Cardiovascular System and what does it do? 1. Includes heart and blood vessels *Heart pumps blood *Vessels transports blood to tissues 2. Blood transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, nutrients, and hormones.
(CONT.) What is the Cardiovascular System and what does it do? 3. Blood also contains white blood cells and chemicals that provide protection from foreign invaders (Heart & blood vessels)
In the Endocrine System, what are the Endocrine glands include? HINT: There are 7 of them 1. Pituitary gland (between the eyes) 2. Thyroid & parathyroid gland (neck area) 3. Adrenal glands (rib area) 4. Thymus gland ( below neck; below thyroid)
(CONT.) In the Endocrine System, what are the Endocrine glands include? HINT: There are 7 of them 5. Pancreas gland (below the thymus, stomach area, above the belly button) 6. Pineal gland (forehead aread; start of the hair line) 7. Ovaries (females) & testes (males)
What is the Nervous System and what does it do? 1. Fast-acting control system. 2. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. 3. Responds to internal & external stimuli. 4. Sensory receptors detect changes.
(CONT.) What is the Nervous System and what does it do? 5. Messages are sent to the central nervous system. 6. Central nervous system assesses information and activities effectors (muscles and glands)
What does the 6 levels of structural organizations do? 1. Chemical level: Atoms combine to form molecules. 2. Cellular level: Cells are made up of molecules (smooth muscle cell) 3. Tissue level: Tissues consist of similar types of cells (smooth muscle tissue)
(CONT.) What does the 6 levels of structural organizations do? 4. Organ level: Organs are made up of different types of tissues *Epithelial tissue (inner part)--> Smooth muscle tissue (middle part) --> Connective tissue (outter part)
(CONT.) What does the 6 levels of structural organizations do? 5. Organ system level: Organ system consist of different organs that work together (blood vessels, heart, cardiovascular system) 6. Organismal level: Human organisms are made up of many organ systems.
What is included in the Respiratory System? HINT: There are 6 altogether 1.Nasal cavity (nose) 2. Pharynx (behind the nasal cavity) 3. Larynx (between the pharynx & trachea) (known as the voice box, used for talking, breathing, and swallowing) 4. Trachea (A wind pipe that runs from the voice box down to the breast bone)
(CONT.) What is included in the Respiratory System? HINT: There are 6 altogether 5. Bronchi (upper portion of the lungs. 6. Lungs
What is the Digestive System and what does it do? 1. Breaks down food. 2. Allows for nutrient absorption into the blood. 3. Eliminates indigestible material as feces.
What is included in the Digestive System? HINT: 6 of them 1. Oral cavity (mouth) 2. Esophagus (muscular tube connecting the throat with the stomach. Runs behind the trachea and heart and in front of the spine.) 3. Stomach (left upper side above the abdomen) 4. Small intestine 5. Large intestine 6. Rectum
What is the Urinary System and what does it do? 1. Eliminates nitrogenous wastes. 2. Maintains acid-base balance. 3. Regulates water and electrolyte balance. 4. Helps regulate normal blood pressure.
What is included in the Urinary System? HINT: 4 of them 1. Kidney (back muscles in the upper abdominal area) 2. Ureter (upper half is located in the abdomen. Other half is in the pelvic area.) 3. Urinary bladder (in the pelvis, just above and behind the pelvic bone) 4. Urethra
What is the Reproductive System? Production offspring
In Reproductive System, what does it do for and in males? In males it includes testes, scrotum, penis, accessory glands, and duct system. 1. Testes produce sperm 2. Duct system carries sperm to exterior
In Reproductive System, what does it do for and in females? In females it includes the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina. 1. Ovaries produce eggs. 2. Uterus provides site of development for fetus.
What are the 8 necessary life functions? 1. Maintaining boundaries 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness (irritability) 4. Digestion 5. Metabolism 6. Excretion 7. Reproduction 8. Growth
Define maintaining boundaries Boundaries separate the "inside" from the "outside".
Define movement 1. locomotion 2. movement of substances
Define responsiveness (irritability) Ability to sense changes and react.
Define digestion Breakdown and absorption of nutrients
Define metabolism and what is does? Chemical reactions within the body 1. Breaks down complex molecules into smaller ones. 2. Builds larger molecules from smaller ones. 3. Produces energy (ATP) 4. Regulated by hormones.
Define excretion and what it does for our body? 1. Eliminates excreta (waste) from metabolic reactions. 2. Wastes may be removed in urine, feces, or sweat.
Define reproduction and what it does in our bodies? 1. Occurs on cellular level or organismal level *Cellular level-new cells are used for growth and repair *Organismal level-the reproductive system handles the task.
Define growth and what it does for our bodies? 1. Increases cell size or body size (through increasing the number of cells) 2. Hormones play a major role.
What are the 5 things you need to survive? 1. Nutrients 2. Oxygen 3. Water 4. Normal body temperature 5. Atmosphere pressure
What are nutrients? 1. Chemicals used for energy and cell building. 2. Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
What is oxygen and what does it do? 1. Required for chemical reactions. 2. Made available by the cooperation of the respiratory and cardiovascular system.
What is water and its need for our bodies? 1. 60-80 percent of body weight 2. Most abundant chemical in the human body. 3. Provides fluid base for body secretions and excretions
Define normal body temperature 1. 98.6 degrees F 2. Below this temperature chemical reactions slow & stop. 3. Above this temperature chemical reactions proceed too rapidly.
Atmosphere pressure Must be appropriate for gas exchange
The language of anatomy 1. Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding. 2. Exacts terms are used for: *position *direction *regions *structures
Define anatomical position 1. Standard body position used to avoid confusion. 2. Terminology refers to this position regardless of actual body position. *stand erect, feet parallel, arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from the body.
Define directional term Explains the location of one body structure in relation to another.
What are the 11 directional terms in anatomy? 1. Superior 2. Inferior 3. Anterior 4. Posterior 5. Medial 6. Laterial 7. Proximal 8. Distal 9. Intermediate 10. Superficial 11. Deep
Define superior & give an example (cranial or cephalic) Toward the head or upper part of the structure of the body; above. Example: The forehead is superior to the nose.
Define inferior & give an example (caudal) Away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure of the body; below. Example: The navel is inferior to the breastbone.
Define anterior & give an example *Front body view* (ventral) Toward or at the front of the body; in front of. Example: The breastbone is anterior to the spine.
Define posterior & give an example *Backside body view* (dorsal) Toward or at the backside of the body; behind. Example: The heart is posterior to the breastbone.
Define medial & give an example Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of. Example: The heart is medial to the arm.
Define lateral & give an example Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of. Example: The arms are laterial to the chest.
Define intermediate & give an example Between a more medial and a more lateral structure. Example: The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder.
Define proximal & give an example Close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment to the limb of the body trunk. Example: The elbow is proximal to the wrist (meaning the elbow is closer to the shoulder or attachment point of the arm than the wrist is)
Define distal & give an example Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. Example: The knee is distal to the high.
Define superficial & give an example (external) Toward or at the body surface. Example: The skin is superficial to the skeleton.
Define deep & give an example (internal) Away from the body surface; more internal. Example: The lungs are deep to the rib cage.
What are body planes & sections & what do they do? 1. Sections are cuts along imaginary lines known as planes. 2. Three types of planes or sections exist as right angles to one another.
Define sagittal section (plane) It divides the body (or organ) into left and right parts.
Define median/midsagittal section (plane) It divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts.
Define frontal/coronal section (plane) It divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts.
Define transverse/cross section (plane) It divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts.
What are the 2 internal body cavities & what do they do? 1. Dorsal (backside view of body) 2. Ventral (front side view of body) Body cavities provide varying degrees of protection to organs within them.
What are the 2 subdivisions of the dorsal body cavity & what do they do.? 1. Cranial cavity: houses the brain and is protected by the skull. 2. Spinal cavity: houses the spinal cord and is protected by the vertebrea.
What are the 2 subdivisions of the ventral body cavity? 1. Thoracic cavity 2.Abdominopelvic cavity
What does the thoracic cavity do? 1. Cavity superior to the diaphragm. 2. Houses the heart, lungs, & other organs. 3. Mediastinum, the central region, houses the heart, trachea, & other organs. 4. Protected by the rib cage.
What does the abdominopelvic cavity do? 1. Cavity inferior to the diaphragm 2. Superior abdominal cavity contains the stomach, liver, & other organs. *protected only by trunk muscles.
(CONT.) What does the abdominopelvic cavity do? 3. Inferior pelvic cavity contains reproductive organs, bladder, & the rectum. *Protected somewhat by bony pelvis 4. No physical structure seperates abdominal from pelvic cavities.
How many quadrants are in the abdominopelvic cavity? 4
How many regions are in the abdominopelvic cavity? 9
What are the 4 quadrants in the abdominopelvic cavity? 1. Right upper quadrant (RUQ) 2. Right lower quadrant (RLQ) 3. Left upper quadrant (LUQ) 4. Left lower quadrant (LLQ)
What are the 9 regions in the abdominnopelvic cavity? 1. Right hypochondriac region - (liver) 2. Epigastric region - (stomach) 3. Left hypochondriac region - (diaphragm) 4. Right lumbar region - (large intestine)
(CONT.) What are the 9 regions in the abdominnopelvic cavity? 5. Umbilical region - (large intestine) 6. Left lumbar region - (large intestine) 7. Right iliac (inguinal) region - (appendix) 8. Hypogastric (pubic) region - (Urinary bladder) 9. Left iliac (inguinal) region
What are the other body cavities include? 1. Oral and digestive cavities 2. Nasal cavity 3. Orbital cavity 4. Middle ear cavity
What are the main controlling systems of homeostasis? 1. Nervous system 2. Endocrine system
Define homeostasis Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions. A dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance. Necessary for normal body functioning and to sustain life.
Define homeostatic imbalance A disturbance in homeostasis results in disease
Define maintaining homeostasis All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three components: receptor, control center, and effector.
What are the 3 components for maintaining homeostasis? 1. Receptor 2. Control center 3. Effector
What does a receptor do in homeostasis? 1. Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli). 2. Sends information to control center along an afferent pathway.
What does a control center do in homeostasis? 1. Determines set point. 2. Analyzes information. 3. Determines appropriate response.
What does a effector do in homeostasis? 1. Provides a means for response to the stimulus. 2. Information flows from control center to effector along efferent pathway.
Define negative feedback in the mechanisms 1. Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms. 2. Shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity. 3. Works like a household thermostat.
Define positive feedback in the mechanisms
What are the 5 steps in a imbalance homeostasis? 1. Stimulus: produces change in variable. 2. Receptor: detects change. 3. Input: Information is sent along afferent pathway to control center.
(CONT.) What are the 5 steps in a imbalance homeostasis? 4. Output: Information is sent along efferent pathway to effector. 5. Response: of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level.
Created by: alisia02