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AH 112: Digestive

Study material for the digestive unit-B. Poole

What does the digestive system include? the digestive tract and its accessory organs
What does the digestive tract include? mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
What are the accessory organs? tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Food undergoes these three processes in the body: digestion, absorption, elimination
What is ingestion? taking in food through the mouth
What is mechanical digestion? when large pieces of food get broken down into smaller pieces through chewing in the mouth, and mixing in the stomach
What is chemical digestion? when water and digestive enzymes break down the molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by cells
What is peristalsis? the movements that propel the food particles though the digestive tract
What is absorption? when the simple molecules that result from chemical digestion pass through cell membranes into the blood or lymph capillaries. This happens in the small intestine.
What is elimination? when the food molecules that cannot be digested or absorbed are passed through the body out the anus in the form of feces
About how long is the digestive tract? About 9 meters (that's about 30 feet long!)
How many layers does the digestive tract "tube" contain? four
Regions of the digestive system are divided into these two parts: alimentary tract, and accessory organs
What makes up the alimentary tract? mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus
What makes up the accessory organs? (things NOT included in alimentary tract) salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
How many teeth do adults have? 32
Where is the stomach located? in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen
What is chyme? the semi-fluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach into the small intestine (pronounced 'kime'-rhymes with 'lime')
The small intestine is divided into these three areas: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What does the large intestine consist of? colon, rectum, and anal canal
What happens in the large intestine? Water is absorbed and feces is eliminated
What are the six activities of the digestive system? ingestion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, movements, absorption, and elimination
What are the four layers of the digestive tract? mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serous layer/serosa
Created by: LCC



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