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AP Euro History Ch17

1. Immanuel Kant German philosopher that described the enlightenment as "man's leaving his self-caused immaturity"
2. reason advocating the application of the scientific method to the understanding of all life
3. Fontenelle's Plurality of Worlds an intimate conversation between a lady and aristocrat and her lover who are engaged in a conversation under the stars.
4. Pierre Bayle thought that compelling people to believe a particular set of religious ideas was wrong
5. James Cook's Travels am account of Cook's Journey and became a best seller
6. John Locke's tabule rasa everyone was born with a blank mind
7. Essay Concerning Human Understanding denied Descartes's belief in innate ideas
8. Philosophes literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, and above all, social reformers
9. Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws This treatise was a comparative study of governments in which Montesquieu attempted to apply the scientific method to the social and political arena to ascertain the "natural laws" governing the social relationships of human beings
10. Voltaire's Treatise on Toleration argued that religious tolerance had created no problems for England and Holland reminded governments that "all men are brothers under god."
11. deism a religious outlook shared by most other philosophers
12. Denis Diderot's Encyclopedia classified dictionary of the sciences, arts, and trades. (he called "great work of his life")
13. "science of man" (social sciences) philosopher arrived at natural laws that they believed that governed human actions
14. David Hume "a pioneering social scientist", wrote treatise on human nature "an attempt to introduce the method of reasoning into moral subjects"
15. Physiocrats claimed they would discover the natural economic laws that governed human society
16. Francois Quesnay The leader of the Physiocrats and a highly successful French court physician
17. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations enunciating three basic principles of economics, Smith presented a strong attack on mercantilism
18. laissez-faire "let people do as they choose"
19. Condorecet and Baron d'Holbach a wealthy german aristocrat who preached a doctrine of strict atheism and materialism
20. Jean-jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract and the general will tried to harmonize individual liberty with government authority: "this means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free"
21. Emile most important works on education, a general treatise "on the education of the natural man"
22. Mary Astell's A Serious Proposal to the Ladies argued that women needed to become better educated
23. Mary Wollstonecraft founder of modern European feminism
24. Vindication of the rights of women Wollstonecraft pointed out two contradictions in the views of women held by such enlightenment thinkers as Rousseau
25. the salon and the coffee house elegant drawing rooms in the urban houses of the wealthy where invited philosophers and guests gathered to engage in witty, sparkling conversations that often centered on the ideas of the philosophers;
26. Marie-Therese da Geoffrin a wealthy bourgeois widow, welcomed the encyclopedists to her salon and offered financial assistance to complete the work in secret
27. American philosophical Society doctors and local officials gathered to discuss enlightened ideas
28. Rococo emphasized grace and gentle action, rejected strict geometric patterns and had a fondness for curves
29. Antoine Watteau views of aristocratic life- reflected a world of upper-class pleasure and joy
30. Balthasar Neumann the greatest aristocrats of the 18th century; the pilgrimage church of the Vierzehnheiligen and the bishops palace
31. Neoclassicism Neoclassical artists wanted to recapture the dignity and simplicity of the classical style of ancient Greece and Rome
32. Jacques-Louis David re-created a scene from Roman history in which the three Horatis brothers swore an oath before their father
33. Johann Sebastian Bach For Bach, music was above all a means to worship god; in his own words, his talk in life was to make "well-ordered music in the honor of god"
34. George Fredrick Handel experienced a stormy international career and was profoundingly secular in temperament
35. Franz Joseph Haydn spent most of his adult life as mucisical director for the wealthy Hungarian princes, the Esterhazy brothers
36. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart a child prodigy who gave his first harpsicord concert at six and wrote his first opera at twelve
37. Samuel Richardson's Pamela a printer by trade and did not turn to writing until his fifties
38. Henry Fielding's History of Tom Jones, A Foundling a lengthy novel about the numerous adventure of a young scoundrel
39. Edward Gibbon's Decline and fall of the Roman Empire portrayed the growth of Christianity as a major reason for Rome's eventual collapse
40. Addison and Steele's Spectator Its goal was "to enliven Morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality... to bring philosophy out of the closets and libraries, schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and assemblies, at tea-tables and coffee houses"
41. newspapers and libraries filled with news and special features; offered books for rent
42. Realschule and Volkschulen offered modern languages, geography and bookkeeping to prepare boys for careers in business
43. Cesare Beccaria argued that punishments should only serve as deterrents, not as exercises in brutality
44. Carnival the most spectacular form of festival, people ate, drank, and celebrated to excess
45. Gin the favorite drink of poor people, devastating, people drinking themselves into oblivion, very cheap
46. chapbooks printed on cheap paper, short brochures sold by itinerant peddlers to the lower classes
47. Joseph II's Toleration Patent granted Lutherans, Calvinists, and Greek Orthodox the right to worship privately
48. Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews Largest number of Jews, forbidden to own land or hold many jobs, forced to pay burdensome special taxes; expelled form spain in the 15th century, free to participate in banking and commercial activities that Jews had practiced since the Middle Ages
49. pietism and the Moravian Brethren in Germany, was a response to this desire for a deeper personal devotion to god, was spread by the teachings of Count Nicolas von Zinzendorf and his Moravian Brethren
50. John Wesley and Methodism all could be saved by experiencing God and opening the doors to his grace.
Created by: ambrecooper