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CARDIOVASCULAR MEDS

Pharmacology for Health Professionals

QuestionAnswer
PULMONARY MEDICATIONS Most pulmonary (lung) medications are designed to make breathing (ventilation) easier by: 1. Bronchodilation. 2. Reducing inflammation.
Bronchodilation means increased diameter (lumen) of the bronchi (airways) and bronchioles (small airways)
Medications that cause bronchodilation are called bronchodilators
Medications that reduce inflammation include 1. SAIDS which stands for steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 2. NSAIDS which stands for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Respiratory diseases treated with bronchodilators and/or SAIDS include: 1. Asthma. 2. Emphysema 3. Chronic bronchitis
Asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis belong to a group of respiratory diseases abbreviated COPD which stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic means persistent
Many pulmonary (lung) medications are administered (given) by inhalation (INH) via (by) MDI which stands for metered-dose inhaler
The dosage (amount) of a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is measured in puffs
A medication classified as a bronchodilator is called Maxair
A medication classified as a bronchodilator is called Atrovent
A medication classified as a bronchodilator is called Dulera
Bronchodilators increase airway diameters (lumina) which means distance across the center of bronchi (airways) and bronchioles (small airways).
A medication classified as a bronchodilator is called Serevent
A medication classified as a bronchodilator is called aminophylline
Elixophyllin and Theo-Dur and Theobid and TheoDur and Theolair aka theophylline "theo"
Elixophyllin and Theo-24 and Theobid and Theo-Dur and Theolair have a NTI which stand for narrow therapeutic index
The generic name for Elixophyllin and Theo-24 and Theobid and Theo-Dur and Theolair is theophylline ("theo')
Medications with a NTI (narrow therapeutic index) may require TDM therapeutic drug monitoring
Medications classified as bronchodilators include: Proventil and Ventolin and ProAir aka albuterol.
A medication classified as a bronchodilator is called Asthmanefrin aka epinephrine
Asthma is a COPD which stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Bronchodilator toxicity (poisoning) can occur if combined with caffeine
Caffeine can be found in 1. Coffee. 2. Tea 3. Some sodas (dark sodas) 4. Some medications
Leukotrienes are inflammatory chemicals released by leukocyte (WBCs) that exacerbate (worsen) SAR which stands for seasonal allergic rhinitis
seasonal allergic rhinitis aka hayfever
Leukotrienes are inflammatory chemicals releasd by leukocytes (WBCs) that exacerbate: asthma
A medication classified as a leukotriene blocker to reduce allergy related asthma is called Singulair - leukotriene blocker
SAIDS stands for: Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDS) are aka corticosteroids
Medications described as SAIDS to reduce the incidence of asthma include: 1. Asmanex. 2. Pulmicort
Medications classified as SAIDS to reduce the incidence of asthma include: Azmacort
Medications classified as SAIDS to reduce the incidence of asthma include Flovent - exception to the rule (vent looks like a bronchodilator)
Medications classified as bronchodilators and SAIDS to treat asthma include 1. Symbicort 2. Advair 3. Combivent
A medication classified to treat asthma and emphysema is called Spiriva - test question
A medication classified to treat chronic bronchitis and emphysema is called Brovana - test question
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are COPDs which stand for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
TUBERCULOSIS Tuberculosis (TB) is a: pulmonary (lung) bacterial infection
Medications classified to treat tuberculosis (TB) are called antituberculins
A medication classified as an antituberculin is called INH aka isoniazid
Tuberculosis is a pulmonary bacterial infection
A medication classified as an antiberculin is called Rifadin aka rifampin
Rifadin (rifampin) is an antagonist for BCP which stands for birth control pills
A medication classified as an antituberculin is called Myambutol aka ethambutol
MDRTB stands for multidrug resistant tuberculosis.
Treatment (Tx) for tuberculosis (TB) may require multiple QD (every day) antituberculin medications for 6-9 months and sometimes longer
NICOTINE Medications containing nicotine to treat nicotine withdrawal symptoms are abbreviated NRT which stands for: nicotine replacement therapy
A medication classified as NRT is called: Habitrol
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) contains nicotine and treats: nicotine withdrawal symptoms
A medication classified as (NRT) is called: NicoDerm
NicoDerm is a NRT which stands for nicotine replacement therapy
A medication classified as NRT is called Nicorette
A medication classified as NRT is called: Nicotrol
Nicotrol NS is administered by: nasal spray
A medication classified a a non-nicotine smoking cessation medication is called: Chantix. Chantix does not contain nicotine.
A medication classified as a non-nicotine cessation (stopping) medication is called: Zyban aka bupropion
A medication classified as a non-nicotine smoking cessation medication is called: Catapres aka clonidine
Catapres is also classified as an antihyperensive
Medications designed to lyse (break up) mucus in the lungs for easier expectoration (coughing up) are called: mucolytics
A medication classified as a mucolytic is called Mucomyst
Medications classified s immunization against pneumococcal pneumonia include: 1. Pneumovax 23 2. Prevnar 13
Immunizations are aka vaccinations or inoculations
CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICATIONS Congestive heart failure (CHF) occurs when the heart becomes a: weak pump
Occurs means happens
CHF causes a decrease in CO which stands for: cardiac output
CHF causes an increase in HR which stands for: heart rate
Medications classified to slow the heart rate and stimulate the myocardium to contract more forcefully include: 1. Lanoxin. 2. Digitek 3. Lanoxicaps aka digoxin (dig)
Treatment for CHF commonly includes: digoxin ("dig")
Lanoxin and Digitek and Lanoxicaps (digoxin) are also classified as: antiarrhythmics
Lanoxin and Digetek and Lanoxicaps (digoxin) have a NTI which stands for: narrow therapeutic index.
Lanoxin and Digitek and Lanoxicaps (digoxin) may require TDM which stands for: therapeutic drug monitoring
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for digoxin is commonly called a "dig level".
Absorption of digoxin ("dig") can be slowed with a high fiber diet
Digoxin ("dig") is aka: digitalis
Signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity include a: yellow green halo around lights and bradycardia (slow heart rate)
Lanoxin and Digitek and Lanoxicaps are commonly administered with a medication classified as a diuretic called Lasix aka furosemide
Diuretics cause polyuria which means: excessive urine production
Lasix (furosemide) can cause hypokalemia which means blood condition of deficient potassium
The abbreviation for potassium is K
Potassium (K) is an electrolyte which means salt
Potassium (K) is commonly measured in mEq which stands for: milliequivalents
ANGINA Angina pectoris (AP) refers to thoracodynia (chest pain) caused by: myocardial ischemia
Myocardial ischemia means: starvation of oxygenated blood to the myocardium (muscle layer of the heart).
Medications classified to treat angina pectoris (AP) is called: antianginals
Some antianginals cause the lumina of the coronary arteries to increase called: vasodilation
Lumina are inside diameters
Medications classified as antianginals include: 1. Nitrostat and Nitro-Dur aka nitroglycerin
Nitroglycerin is abbreviated NTG
Nitroglycerin (NTG) is commonly administered: a. SL which stands for sublingual. b. IV which stands for intravenous. c. Transderman which means through the skin.
A medication classified as an antianginal is called 2. Isordil aka isosorbide (sore heart)
Isordil (isosorbide) and nitroglycerin (NTG) can cause life-threatening hypotension (low blood pressure) if combined with medications to treat erectile dysfunction such as: a. Viagra b. Cialis c. Levitra
HYPERTENSION Chronic hypertension (HTN) means: persistent high blood pressure (HBP)
Cardiac pathology caused by chronic HTN is abbreviated HHD which stands for: Hypertensive heart disease.
Chronic persistent HTN of unknown cause is called: primary hypertension or essential hypertension or idiopathic hypertension
Medications classified to treat chronic hypertension are called: antihypertensives
Medications classified as antihypertensives include: Prinivil and Zestril aka lisinopril
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called: Diovan aka valsartan
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called Avapro aka irbesartan
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called Cozaar aka losartan
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called: Benicar aka olmesartan
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called: Hyzaar
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called: Minipres
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called Capoten
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called Lotensin
A medication classified as an antihypertensive is called: Hytrin
Most medication names that end in -olol are called beta blockers
Beta blockers reduce the HR which stands heart rate
A medication classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive is called Tenormin aka atenolol
Beta blockers reduce the force of cardiac contractions and are commonly administered to treat: AP which stands for angina pectoris.
A medication classified as an antianginal and hypertensive is called Lopressor aka metoprolol
A medication classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive is called: Corgard aka nadolol
A medication classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive is called: Cardene aka nicardipine
A medication classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive is called; Procardia aka nifedipine.
ARRHYTHMIA Arrhythmia means condition of no rhythm
Arrhythmias are aka dysrhythmias
Arrhythmias are abnormalities (anomalies) in the conduction of cardiac (heart) electrical impulses (signals)
Conduction means transmission (movement)
Medications classified to treat arrhythmias are called antiarrhythmics
Arrhythmias are aka dysrhythmias
A medication classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic is called: Calan aka verapamil
A medication classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic is called: Cardizem aka diltiazem
A medication classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic is called Inderal aka propranolol
A medication classified as an antiarrhythmic is called Norpace aka disopyramide
A medication classified as an antiarrhythmic is called: Betapace
A medication classified as an antiarrhythmic is called Rythmol
HYPERLIPIDEMIA Hyperlipidemia means blood condition of excessive fat
Hyperlipidemia can cause abnormal condition of arterial hardening called atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is associated with the: consumption of harmful lipids called saturated fats.
Consumption of saturated fats is associated with CVD which stands for: cardiovascular disease.
Harmful lipids (saturated fats) include: a. Cholesterol (Chol) b. LDL - low density lipoprotein c. TG - triglycerides
Medications classified to lower the amount of fat in the blood are called statins
A medciation classified as an antihyperlipidemic is called Crestor
Antihyperlipidemics are aka statins
A medication classified as an antihyperlipidemic (statin) is called Zocor
Consumption of saturated fats is associated with CVD which stands for cardiovascular disease
A medication classified as an antihyperlipidemic is called Pravachol
Chol stands for cholesterol
Cholesterol is one type of saturated fat
A medication classified as an antihyperlipidemic ("statin") is called: Vytorin
Antihyperlipidemics are classified to lower the amount of fat in the blood.
A medication classified as an antihyperlipidemic is called Lopid
Consumption of harmful lipids (saturated fats) is associated with CVD which stands for cardiovascular disease
A medication classified as an antihyperlipidemic is called Niaspan (niacin) is aka Vitamin B3
A medication classified as an antihyperlipidemic is called Trilipix
Saturated fats associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) include TG which stands for triglycerides
A medication classified as an antihyperlipidemic is called Zetia
Antihyperlipidemics are classified to lower the amount of fat in the blood
The compound of Norvasc (amlodipine and Lipitor is called Caducet
Compound means combination
Norvasc (amlodipine) is classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive
Lipitor is classified as an antihyperlipidemic statin")
Antihyperlipidemic toxicity can occur if combined with grapefruit juice
Toxicity means poisening
Hypertriglyceridemia means blood condition of excessive triglycerides TG)
An omega-3 fish oil classified as an antihypertriglyceridemic is called Lovaza
Triglycerides (TG) are one type of saturated fat (lipid)
Antihyperlipidemics may require periodic LFTs which stands for liver function tests
Antihyperlipidemics can increase the risks of DM which stands for diabetes mellitus
HEMATOLOGIC MEDICATIONS The ability of the blood to change from a liquid to a viscous (thick) mass 9accumulation is called coagulation or clotting
Coagulation (clotting) produces viscous (thick) mass called a thrombus aka a clot
Normal coagulation (clotting) should only occur (happen) in response to a wound or injury called trauma
Abnormal thrombus (clot0 formation can lead to traveling clots called emboli
An embolus (traveling clot) can occlude (obstruct) a stenosed (narrowed) artery causing starvation of oxygenated blood called ischemia (ischemic)
Arterial occlusion not corrected will cause tissue necrosis called an infarction
Common infarctions (infarcts) include 1. MI which stand for myocardial infarction aka a heart attack or coronary.
Arteries can be occluded (obstructed) by a traveling clot called an embolus
Common infarctions (infarcts) include: 2. CVA which stands for cerebral vascular accident aka a stroke.
Infarction (infarct) means tissue necrosis (death) from arterial occlusion (obstruction)
Common infarctions (Iinfarcts) include: 3. PE which stands for pulmonary embolism.
Embolism means traveling clot
Pulmonary means lungs
Medications classified to decrease the creation (formation) of thrombi (clots) are called anticoagulants
Laypeople call anticoagulants blood thinners
Anticoagulants are commonly prescribed to reduce thrombus (clot) formation associated with the arrhythmia A-Fib which stands for atrial fibrillation
Arrhythmias (dysrhythmias) are abnormalities (anomalies) in the conduction of cardiac (heart electrical impulses (signals)
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called heparin
Heparin has a narrow therapeutic index (NTI) and requires TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monitoring
A medication classified as a heparin antagonist is called protamine sulfate
Antagonist is aka antidote
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called Coumadin aka warfarin
Coumadin (warfarin) has a NTI and requires TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monitoring
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called Plavix aka clopidogrel
Plavix (clopidogrel) has a NTI and requires therapeutic drug monitoring
Plavix (clopidogrel) is a common prophylaxis (preventative) for a. Myocardial infarction. (MI), heart attack or coronary b. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) c. .
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called Persantine aka dipyridamole
Persantine (dipyridamole) has a NTI and requires TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monitoring
A medication classified an anticoagulant is called ASA aka aspirin
Aspirin (ASA) does not require TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monitoring
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called Lovenox
Lovenox does not require TDM which means therapeutic drug monitoring.
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called Pradaxa
Pradaxa does not require TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monioring
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called Xarelta
Xarela does not require TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monitoring
A medication classified as an anticoagulant is called Elequis
Elequis does not require TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monitoring
Coagulation abnormalities can occur if ASA (aspirin) or Coumadin (warfarin) or Plavix (clopidogrel) are combined with NSAIDS which stands for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
A medication classified as a coagulant is called Mephyton aka Vitamin K
Medications classified to break up thrombi (clots) are called thrombolytics aka tPA
Laypeople call thrombolytics clot busters
A medication classified as a thrombolytic (tPA) is called Streptase aka streptokinase
Thrombolytic means break up clots
A medication classified as a thrombolytic is called Activase aka alteplase
The knowledge and skills to provide established treatment for life threatening medical emergencies is abbreviated ACLS which means advanced cardiac life support
Emergency medications are commonly administered IVP which stands for intravenous push
A large initial (beginning) dose of a medication to quickly reach the therapeutic index (TI) is called a loading dose or bolus
A medication classified as a cardiac stimulant and bronchodilator is called Adrenalin akda epinephrine or "epi"
A medication classified to treat severe bradycardia is called atropine
Bradycardia means slow heart (pulse)
A medication classified as an antiarrhythmic and local anesthetic is called Xylocaine aka lidocaine
Anesthetic means pertaining to no feeling or nervous sensation
Normal blood pH is 7.35 - 7.45
Blood pH < less than 7.35 is called acidosis (acidotic)
Blood Ph >(greater than) 7.45 is called alkalosis or (alkalotic)
A medication classified to treat acidosis is abbreviate NaHCO2 which stands for sodium bicarbonate or "bicarb"
A medication classified as a cardiac stimulant is abbreviated CaCl which stands for calcium chloride
Hypotension is aka low blood pressure
Medications to treat severe hypotension (LBP) are called vasopressors
A medication classified as a vasopressor is called Adrenalin aka epinephrine
Adrenalin (epinephrine) is also classified as a cardiac stimulant and bronchodilator
A medication classified as a vasopressor is called Pitressin aka vasopressin
Vasopressors treat severe hypotension (low blood pressure)
A medication classified as a vasopressor is called dopamine
Medications classified to induce (start) vomiting are called emetics
A medication classified as an emetic is called syrup of ipecac
A medication classified to absorb toxic substances in the stomach is called Actidose-Aqua aka activated charcoal
A medication classified as a narcotic agent is called Narcan aka naloxone
Antagonist means a medication or drug that deactivates another medication or drug
If no other route of administration is available, emergency medications can be administered via an ET which stands for endotracheal tube
The acronym (first letters of the list) for medications that can be administered via an endotracheal tube spell NAVEL which stands for: a. Narcan b. Atropine c. Vasopressin d. Epinephrine e Lidocaine..
Created by: bterrelonge