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Fundamentals of body structures and functions

When taking a breath, air can enter the mouth aka the: oral cavity (space).
Located at the posterior os (opening) of the oral cavity (mouth) is: lymph tissue called palatine tonsils.
The physiology (function) of lymph tissue is to: defend the body from disease creators called pathogens.
Lymph tissue is considered part of your: immune system.
When taking a breath, air can enter: the nose through the ossa (openings) called nostrils aka external nares.
Air entering the nostrils travels through nose vessels called: nasal passages.
Nostrils are ossa (openings) aka: external nares.
Vessels are aka: ducts or tubes.
Air filled cavities located within the cranium (skull) adjacent (next to) the nose passages (ducts or tubes) are called: paranasal sinuses.
The physiology (function) of the hairs lining the nasal passages (vessels) is to: screen (filter) inhaled air.
Inhale (inhalation) means: breathe in aka inspire (inspiration).
The septa (walls) of the nasal passages (vessels) contain the: sense of small called the olfactory sense.
The septa (walls) of the nasal (nose) passages are lined with: mucous membranes.
Mucous membranes produce: mucus.
Passages are aka: ducts or tubes or vessels.
Nasopharynx (nasopharygeal) means: nose and pharynx.
Pharynx means: throat.
Located at the posterior (back) orifice (opening) of the nasopharynx is: lymph tissue called adenoids.
The physiology of lymph tissue is to defend the body from: disease creators called pathogens.
Two (2) ducts (vessels) that connect the nasopharynx to the middle ears are called: Eustachian tubes.
The physiology of each Eustachian tube is to equalize pressure between each middle ear and the outside environment to prevent tympanorrhexis: which means ruptured eardrum.
Eustachian tubes connect the: nasopharynx to the middle ear.
The larynx connects the pharynx to: the trachea aka the windpipe.
The larynx is the: voice box.
The pharynx is the: throat.
Laryngopharynx (laryngopharyngeal) means: larynx and pharynx.
The larynx is supported by sections of: flexible connective tissue called cartilage.
The sections of cartilage that support the larynx are called the: Thyroid cartilage, Epiglottis, Cricoid cartilage.
The largest section of cartilage supporting the larynx is called the: thyroid cartilage aka the Adam's apple.
The cartilaginous lid over the glottis is called the: epiglottis.
The glottis is the os (opening) between the: vocal cords.
Cartilage is elastic which means: flexible.
The physiology (function) of the epiglottis is to: open when we breathe (ventilate) and close when we swallow.
The epiglottis is a cartilaginous lid over the: glottis.
The trachea is the: windpipe.
The (2) primary (1st) airways that bifurcate off the trachea are called: bronchi.
Bifurcate (bifurcation) means: divide into two (2).
The airways that bifurcate off the trachea (windpipe) are called the: Right primary bronchus and the Left primary bronchus.
The primary bronchi branch into: smaller airways called secondary bronchi aka lobar bronchi.
Secondary bronchi are aka: lobar bronchi.
Secondary bronchi branch into smaller airways called: tertiary (3rd) bronchi aka segmental bronchi.
Tertiary bronchi branch into smaller airways called: bronchioles.
Tertiary bronchi are aka: segmental bronchi.
Bronchioles branch into smaller airways called: terminal bronchioles.
Terminal (end) bronchioles branch into microscopic airways called respiratory branches
Respiratory bronchioles branch into smaller microscopic airways called: alveolar ducts.
Ducts are: tubes or vessels.
Alveolar ducts branch into: microscopic grape-like clusters called alveoli.
The average number of alveoli in a human is: 30 million.
Branching of the airways is called the : bronchial tree.
Every alveolus is surrounded by microscopic arteries and veins called: capillaries.
The gases exchanged during respiration are called: oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Respiration (exchange of gases) occurs (happens) by a process where a gas of higher concentration (amount) spreads to an area of lower concentration called: diffusion.
The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between alveoli and erythrocytes (RBCs) is called: external respiration.
The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the erythrocytes (RBCs) and body cells is called: internal respiration.
The body space where respiratory organs are located is called: the thoracic (chest) cavity.
The lungs are divided into sections called: lobes.
The right (R) lung contains three (3) lobes: Right upper lobe, Right middle lobe and Right lower lobe.
The left (L) lung contains two (2) lobes: Left upper lobe, Left lower lobe.
The lungs are surrounded by two (2) membranes (lining) called: pleurae.
The physiology of the pleurae is to protect the lungs from the ribs during: inhalation aka breathing or inspiration.
The outermost pleural membrane (lining) is called the: parietal pleura.
The physiology of the parietal pleura is to protect the lungs from the ribs during : inhalation aka breathing or inspiration.
The innermost pleural membrane (lining) is called the: visceral pleura.
The physiology of the visceral pleura is to protect the lungs from the ribs during: inhalation aka breathing or inspiration.
The space between the parietal pleura (outermost membrane) + visceral pleura (innermost membrane) is called: the pleural space aka pleural cavity.
The pleural space (cavity) contains lubricating fluid to prevent friction between: the parietal (outermost) pleura and visceral pleura (innermost membrane).
The process of inhalation and exhalation is called: ventilation or breathing.
Inhalation (inspiration) means: breathing in.
Exhalation (expiration) means: breathing out.
The muscles of ventilation include: the diaphragm.
The muscles of ventilation include: Internal intercostals and external intercostals.
Intercostal means: the ribs.
Ventilation is controlled by the respiratory center of the brain called: the medulla oblongata.
A device (machine) to assist (help) with inspiration and expiration is called a: ventilator.
The trachea (windpipe) and bronchial airways are lined with mucous membranes and small hair-like structures called: cilia.
The physiology (function) of cilia is to: catch foreign particles during inhalation (inspiration).
As the cilia become saturated (filled) with inhaled (inspired) foreign particles, the mucous membranes (linings) of the respiratory tract will secrete (produce and discharge): mucus.
The function of the mucus is to: trap the foreign particles.
Mucus secretion stimulates the nervous system to trigger: the cough reflex.
Coughing up mucus is called: expectoration (expectorate).
Mucus expectorated (coughed up) is called: sputum or phlegm.
Sputum (phlegm) expectorated (coughed up) can be: spit out or swallowed.
A cough were sputum (phlegm) is not produced is called: nonproductive cough.
Antitussive refers to a: cough suppressant.
Normal sputum appears: clear or white.
Mucopurulent sputum contains: mucus and pus.
Sputum is aka: phlegm.
Hemoptysis means: expectorating (coughing up) blood.
PFT stands for: pulmonary function tests.
The process of measuring the ability to ventilate (breathe) is abbreviated IS which stands for: incentive spirometry.
An instrument to measure the ability to ventilate is called a: spirometer.
The volume of air inhaled (inspired) and exhaled (expired) during normal ventilation is abbreviated TV which stands for: tidal volume.
The volume of air that can be inspired (inhaled) beyond a normal resting inspiration (inhalation) is abbreviated IRV which stands for: inspiratory reserve volume.
The volume of air that be expired (exhaled) beyond a normal resting expiration (exhalation) is abbreviated ERV which stands for: expiratory reserve volume.
A test to measure O2 (oxygen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in arterial blood is abbreviated ABG which stands for: arterial blood gases.
The percentage of oxygen that combines with hemoglobin (Hgb) is abbreviated SaO2 which sands for: oxygen (O2) saturation.
The amount of carbon dioxide that combines with Hgb is abbreviated PCO2 which stands for: percentage of carbon dioxide.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive process of measuring SaO2 which stands for: oxygen saturation.
A device for inhalation (breathing in) administration of a fine mist medication is called: nebulizer/vaporizer/atomizer.
A device (machine) to assist with deep inhalation of a medication by positive pressure is abbreviated NPPV which stands for: noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.
NPPV is aka IPPB which stands for: intermittent positive pressure breathing.
A device to treat OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) is abbreviated C-PAP which sands for: continuous positive airway pressure.
OSA stands for: obstructive sleep apnea.
Apnea means: no breathing.
Intubation (intubate) means: insertion of (putting in) a tube.
Endotracheal intubation means: insertion of an ET which stands for endotracheal tube.
Laryngoscope means: lighted instrument to view the voice box (vocal cords).
A laryngoscope is used for insertion of an ET which stands for: endotracheal tube.
A self-re-inflating bag that is squeezed to ventilate an apnic client is abbreviated BVM which stands for: bag valve mask or AMBU which stands for artificial manual breathing unit.
The most common DI test performed on the lungs is a CXR which stands for: chest x-ray.
DI stands for: diagnostic imaging.
A crackling BS (breath sound) heard during auscultation is called: rales.
A wheezing BS (breath sound) is called: rhonchi.
A high pitched BS indicative (suggestive) of an airway obstruction is called: stridor.
The hospital department responsible for respiratory treatments is abbreviated RT which stands for: respiratory therapy.
Respiratory therapy is aka IT which stands for: Inhalation therapy.
Created by: bterrelonge