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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Fundamentals of body structures and functions

QuestionAnswer
When taking a breath, air can enter the mouth aka the oral cavity (space)
Located at the posterior os (opening) of the oral cavity (mouth) is lymph tissue called palatine tonsils
The physiology (function) of lymph tissue is to defend the body from disease creators called pathogens.
Lymph tissue is considered part of your immune system
When taking a breath, air can enter the nose through the ossa (openings) called nostrils aka external nares
Air entering the nostrils travels through nose vessels called nasal passages
Nostrils are ossa (openings) aka external nares
Vessels are aka ducts or tubes
Air filled cavities located within the cranium (skull) adjacent (next to) the nose passages (ducts or tubes) are called paranasal sinuses.
The physiology (function) of the hairs lining the nasal passages (vessels) is to screen (filter) inhaled air.
Inhale (inhalation) means breathe in aka inspire (inspiration)
The septa (walls) of the nasal passages (vessels) contain the sense of small called the olfactory sense
The septa (walls) of the nasal (nose) passages are lined with mucous membranes.
Mucous membranes produce mucus
Passages are aka ducts or tubes or vessels.
Nasopharynx (nasopharygeal) means nose and pharynx
Pharynx means throat
Located at the posterior (back) orifice (opening) of the nasopharynx is lymph tissue called adenoids.
The physiology of lymph tissue is to defend the body from disease creators called pathogens
Two (2) ducts (vessels) that connect the nasopharynx to the middle ears are called Eustachian tubes
The physiology of each Eustachian tube is to equalize pressure between each middle ear and the outside environment to prevent tympanlrrhexis which means ruptured eardrum
Eustachian tubes connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
The larynx connects the pharynx to the trachea aka the windpipe
The larynx is the voice box
The pharynx is the throat
Laryngopharynx (laryngopharyngeal) means larynx and pharynx
The larynx is supported by sections of flexible connective tissue called cartilage.
The sections of cartilage that support the larynx are called the Thyroid cartilage, Epiglottis, Cricoid cartilage
The largest section of cartilage supporting the larynx is called the thyroid cartilage aka the Adam's apple.
The cartilaginous lid over the glottis is called the epiglottis
The glottis is the os (opening) between the vocal cords.
Cartilage is elastic which means flexible.
The physiology (function) of the epiglottis is to open when we breathe (ventilate) and close when we swallow.
The epiglottis is a cartilaginous lid over the glottis
The trachea is the windpipe
The (2) primary (1st) airways that bifurcate off the trachea are called bronchi
Bifurcate (bifurcation) means: divide into two (2)
The airways that bifurcate off the trachea (windpipe) are called the Right primary bronchus and the Left primary bronchus.
The primary bronchi branch into smaller airways called secondary bronchi aka lobar bronchi
Secondary bronchi are aka lobar bronchi
Secondary bronchi branch into smaller airways called tertiary (3rd) bronchi aka segmental bronchi
Tertiary bronchi branch into smaller airways called bronchioles
Tertiary bronchi are aka segmental bronchi
Bronchioles branch into smaller airways called terminal bronchioles
Terminal (end) bronchioles branch into microscopic airways called respiratory branches
Respiratory bronchioles branch into smaller microscopic airways called alveolar ducts
Ducts are tubes or vessels
Alveolar ducts branch into microscopic grape-like clusters called alveoli.
The average number of alveoli in a human is 30 million
Branching of the airways is called the bronchial tree
Every alveolus is surrounded by microscopic arteries and veins called capillaries
The gases exchanged during respiration are called oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
Respiration (exchange of gases) occurs (happens) by a process where a gas of higher concentration (amount) spreads to an area of lower concentration called diffusion
The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between alveoli and erythrocytes (RBCs) is called external respiration.
The exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the erythrocytes (RBCs) and body cells is called internal respiration
The body space where respiratory organs are located is called the thoracic (chest) cavity.
The lungs are divided into sections called lobes.
The right (R) lung contains three (3) lobes Right upper lobe, Right middle lobe and Right lower lobe.
The left (L) lung contains two (2) lobes Left upper lobe, Left lower lobe.
The lungs are surrounded by two (2) membranes (lining) called pleurae
The physiology of the pleurae is to protect the lungs from the ribs during inhalation aka breathing or inspiration
The outermost pleural membrane (lining) is called the parietal pleura.
The physiology of the parietal pleura is to protect the lungs from the ribs during inhalation aka breathing or inspiration.
The innermost pleural membrane (lining) is called the visceral pleura
The physiology of the visceral pleura is to protect the lungs from the ribs during inhalation aka breathing or inspiration.
The space between the parietal pleura (outermost membrane) + visceral pleura (innermost membrane) is called the pleural space aka pleural cavity
The pleural space (cavity) contains lubricating fluid to prevent friction between the parietal (outermost) pleura and visceral pleura (innermost membrane).
The process of inhalation and exhalation is called ventilation or breathing
Inhalation (inspiration) means breathing in
Exhalation (expiration) means breathing out
The muscles of ventilation include the diaphragm
The muscles of ventilation include Internal intercostals and external intercostals
Intercostal means the ribs
Ventilation is controlled by the respiratory center of the brain called the medulla oblongata
A device (machine) to assist (help) with inspiration and expiration is called a ventilator
The trachea (windpipe) and bronchial airways are lined with mucous membranes and small hair-like structures called cilia
The physiology (function) of cilia is to catch foreign particles during inhalation (inspiration)
As the cilia become saturated (filled) with inhaled (inspired) foreign particles, the mucous membranes (linings) of the respiratory tract will secrete (produce and discharge) mucus
The function of the mucus is to trap the foreign particles
Mucus secretion stimulates the nervous system to trigger the cough reflex
Coughing up mucus is calld expectoration (expectorate)
Mucus expectorated (coughed up) is called sputum or phlegm
Sputum (phlegm) expectorated (coughed up) can be spit out or swallowed.
A cough were sputum (phlegm) is not produced is called nonproductive cough
Antitussive refers to a cough suppressant
Normal sputum appears clear or white
Mucopurulent sputum contains mucus and pus
Sputum is aka phlegm
Hemoptysis means expectorating (coughing up) blood
PFT stands for pulmonary function tests
The process of measuring the ability to ventilate (breathe) is abbreviated IS which stands for incentive spirometry
An instrument to measure the ability to ventilate is called a spirometer
The volume of air inhaled (inspired) and exhaled (expired) during normal ventilation is abbreviated TV which stands for tidal volume
The volume of air that can be inspired (inhaled) beyond a normal resting inspiration (inhalation) is abbreviated IRV which stands for inspiratory reserve volume
The volume of air that be expired (exhaled) beyond a normal resting expiration (exhalation) is abbreviated ERV which stands for expiratory reserve volume
A test to measure O2 (oxygen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in arterial blood is abbreviated ABG which stands for arterial blood gases
The percentage of oxygen that combines with hemoglobin (Hgb) is abbreviated SaO2 which sands for oxygen (O2) saturation
The amount of carbon dioxide that combines with Hgb is abbreviated PCO2 which stands for percentage of carbon dioxide.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive process of measuring SaO2 which stands for oxygen saturation
A device for inhalation (breathing in) administration of a fine mist medication is called nebulizer/vaporizer/atomizer
A device (machine) to assist with deep inhalation of a medication by positive pressure is abbreviated NPPV which stands for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
NPPV is aka IPPB which stands for intermittent positive pressure breathing.
A device to treat OSA (obstructive sleep apnea) is abbreviated C-PAP which sands for continuous positive airway pressure
OSA stands for obstructive sleep apnea
Apnea means no breathing
Intubation (intubate) means insertion of (putting in) a t;ube.
Endotracheal intubation means insertion of an ET which stands for endotracheal tube
Laryngoscope means lighted instrument to view the voice box (vocal cords).
A laryngoscope is used for insertion of an ET which stands for endotracheal tube.
A self-re-inflating bag that is squeezed to ventilate an apnic client is abbreviated BVM which stands for bag valve mask or AMBU which stands for artificial manual breathing unit.
The most common DI test performed on the lungs is a CXR which stands for chest x-ray.
DI stands for diagnostic imaging
A crackling BS (breath sound) heard during auscultation is called rales
A wheezing BS (breath sound) is called rhonchi
A high pitched BS indicative (suggestive) of an airway obstruction is called stridor
The hospital department responsible for respiratory treatments is abbreviated RT which stands for respiratory therapy
Respiratory therapy is aka IT which stands for Inhalation therapy.
Created by: bterrelonge