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A&P Unit 1

What are the 3 components of cardiovascular system: 1-A pump (the heart) 2-A conducting system (blood vessels) 3-A fluid medium (blood)
What is blood a type of? connective tissue
What is the study of blood and blood disorders? Hematology
What are the 5 main functions of blood? 1-OXYGEN delivery from lungs to tissue and CO2 removal (t-l) 2- carry HORMONES & NUTRIENTS 3-CLOTTING + protection against infection/toxins by transporting WBCs and Antibodies 4-ACID/BASE BALANCE 5-REGULATES BODY TEMP by absorbing/getting rid of heat
What is the average temperature of blood? 38* C
Describe blood's viscosity: High Viscosity
Describe the PH of blood: Slightly Alkaline/basic (7.35-7.45)
The average adult has how much blood? 5 L
What's in Plasma? H2O, Proteins, Nutrients, Hormones, etc.
What's the term for separating blood into all its parts? fractionation
What kind of device is used during fractionation? centrifuge
What's in buffy coat? White blood cells, platelets
What is in Hematocrit? Red Blood Cells
What % of blood is plasma? 55%
What part of the blood is considered extracellular matrix? Plasma
What % of blood is formed elements? 45%
What 3 proteins are in Plasma? Albumin, Globulin, Fibrinogen
What is the most common protein in Plasma? Albumin
Where are the proteins that are in Plasma made? Liver
What is Albumin? Protein Taxi
What are Globulins? Antibodies
What are Fibrinogens? Clotting Agent
What type of protein regulates fluid volume? Albumins
What is the other term for Platelets? Thrombocytes
What is the definition of Hematocrit? Volume % of erythrocytes
Why are RBC biconcave? Increase O2 carrying capacity (increase surface area)
3 properties of Erythrocytes: 1-BICONCAVE 2-No nucleus OR DNA 3- Live 120 Days
Formed Elements are also called... Solids
What 3 parts make up the formed elements? WBCs Platelets Erythrocytes
What is the main component of Plasma? H2O
Hemoglobin is what pigment? The RED pigment
What does Hemoglobin carry? Oxygen
What protein structure is Hemoglobin? Quaternary
What is in the Heme (middle) of each Hemoglobin? Fe+ (Iron)
What are the 4 components of Hemoglobin? 2 Alpha and 2 Beta polypeptide chains
What are each of the 4 chains for Hemoglobin called? Globular subunit
What is Hemoglobin (one of its 4 subunits) carrying oxygen called? Oxyhemoglobin
What is blood carrying CO2 back to the lungs (mostly as carbonic acid) called? carbaminohemoglobin
What is the magic # with Hemoglobin? 4
Each Hemoglobin can carry how many oxygens? 4
what is a Rouleau? stacked RBCs (like a train)
Describe the structure of Erythrocytes: 1-Large surface area to volume ratio 2-Stacked like dinner plates (Rouleau) 3-can bend and flex when bending into small capillaries
What is Erythropoiesis? the making of new RBCs through a Neg. feedback loop
How long is the lifespan of RBCs? 120 days- broken apart and recycled by the liver and spleen
What is Erythropoietin? The essential hormone of RBCs that is released by the kidneys in response to low O2 and Iron availability
Describe the process of making new RBCs: Kidney sends Erythropoietin as a signal to Red Bone Marrow and says he's detected low O2; Red Bone marrow says sure and takes the Hemocytoblast (stem cells in RBM) and tells them to divide and produce more RBCs This process takes 3-5 days!
What 3 things can Hemocytoblasts divide and become? Platelets; RBCs, and WBCs
In what kind of tissue can RBCs be produced? Myeloid (Red Bone Marrow)
Stages for making a Red Blood Cell Hemocytoblast Myeloid stem cell Proerythroblast Erythroblast Reticulocyte Mature erythrocyte (RBC)
What suffix implies "JRs" Blast
What are immature RBCs? Reticulocytes
When would you cause Reticulocytes to increase in number? If blood loss (hemorrhage) or patient moves to higher altitude, blood doping/EPO, dehydration (polycythemia)
When would you need Reticulocytes to decrease in number? Due to certain anemias or bone marrow disorders. Anemia interferes w/ oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Every system affected – oxygen starvation.
What ingests old RBCs? Macrophages in the spleen
3 million new RBCs are made every second to replace the _______% daily loss: 1%!
What 2 products are retrieved when RBCs are broken down? Globin and Heme (bilirubin and iron)
What happens to the globin broken down from the RBC? Amino Acids are brought back to the Red Bone Marrow to make new RBCs
Describe how Bilirubin is recycled from RBCs: Biliverdin (green) to Bilirubin (yellow) attaches to albumin, goes to liver, is excreted via bile duct into duodenum of small intestines as bile. Excreted with feces (stercobilins) or urine (urobilins).
Describe how Iron is recycled from RBCs: Iron (Fe2+) attaches to carrier protein in liver (transferrin) and heads back to red bone marrow (stored as ferritin and hemosiderin) to make new RBCs
How much O2 blood carries depends on the _________of the RBCs and hemoglobin: quantity
Lab values for female and male Hemoglobin: F 12-16 g/dl, M 13-18 g/dl *******
Why do females need more hemoglobin?
High levels of what in men cause an increase in RBC production? Androgens
What is required for hemoglobin synthesis? Dietary Iron
People need how many mg of dietary iron per day? 5-20
Women have a higher dietary need for what three things due to menstruation? iron, B12, folic acid, and vitamin C
Average blood loss during menstruation is about how much? 40ccs aka 3 tbsp
Abnormally heavy bleeding is defined as how much? 80ccs aka over 5 tablespoons
Some women with very heavy periods can lose up to how much blood? a pint
What is the most common type of anemia? iron deficiency anemia
How do you get sickle cell? inherited
Is the trait for sickle cell anemia good or bad? good- prevents malaria
What happens with sickle cells? Mutation of beta chain amino acid sequence Causes defective Hgb to stick to other Hgb molecules
What kind of cells are abnormal with sickle cell? stiff, curved, moon shaped
What are the main symptoms of sickle cell? pain, heart failure, stroke, clotting (thrombus)
What causes the symptoms of sickle cell? No oxygen
1 in _________ African American babies are born with Sickle cell TRAIT. 13
1 in ________ African American babies are born with Sickle cell disease. 365
What is Polycythemia vera? too many cells- stuck in mitosis... is a vera/very bad
What is secondary polycythemia? Overproduction due to compensation for lack of O2 like smoking, air pollution, heart or lung dz, or living at a high altitude
symptoms of secondary polycythemia: headache, itchiness, ruddiness of skin
2 categories of WBCs: Granulocytes (with granules) Agranulocytes (no granules)
Name the 5 types of WBCs: Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil Monocyte Lymphocyte
Which WBCs have granules? Neutrophil Eosinophil Basophil
Which WBCs don't have granules? monocyte lymphocyte
What type of WBC is most common? Neutrophil
What type of WBC is the main component in pus? Neutrophil
Which type of WBC is known as the "first responder"? Neutrophil
What type of WBC is present in allergic reactions and parasites? (Wormy and Allergy) Eosinophils
What type of WBC secretes Heparin and Histamine? Basophil
Which type of WBC works for long term immunity? lymphocyte
3 types of lymphocytes: Natural Killer Cells (NKs) T-lymphocytes ( Cytotoxic Ts and Helper Ts) B-lymphocytes (anti-bodies)
What type of WBCs are the largest? Monocyte
What type of WBC takes the longest to get there and stays the longest: Monocyte
Which type of WBC turns into a macrophage? Monocyte
Which type of WBC lives for a few years? Monocyte
Which cell type can also be called band or stab cells? Neutrophil
Which WBC cell type lives in blood vessels until needed to fight an infection in a tissue? Neutrophil
Which WBC type works for the digestive and respiratory tracts? Eosinophils
What WBC secretes Heparin and Histamine? Basophils
What are B-Lymphocytes? Plasma cells that make Antibodies
What WBC type colonizes in the liver and spleen? lymphocyte
What cell type eats cancer & bacteria? macrophage
What are platelets also known as? Thrombocytes
Are Platelets cells? kind of..... they're really just pieces of megakaryocytes
What is the medical term for the stopping of bleeding? hemostasis
What do Platelets play a key role in? hemostasis
3 phases of hemostasis: vascular platelet coagulation
What is the strongest vasoconstrictor known? endothelin
What do injured endothelial cells release? endothelin
What happens during the collagen phase? collagen is exposed causing platelets to adhere
During the platelet phase... what binds to what causing the platelets to become very active? von Willebrand factor binds to exposed collagen and passing platelets
Describe platelet activity during the platelet phase of hemostasis: sticky (platelet aggregation) and strongly bind to collagen
What players are present during the clotting phase of hemostasis? intrinsic proteins (inside the blood vessel) extrinsic proteins (outside the blood vessel) Fibrinogen Fibrin
Final STEP (not phase) of hemostasis: conversion of Fibrinogen Fibrin
Both pathways result in the formation of what? Factor X
After the formation of Factor X, what happens next? the clot formation follows the common pathway
Order the common pathway: Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin
What does Fibrin do? forms a sticky web at the site of injury, grabbing RBCs and platelets and causing CLOT REACTION
What is reaction cascade? a chain reaction of clotting factors
What is Fibrinolysis? dissolution of a blood clot (taking the stitches out/getting rid of the scab so it doesn't cause problems)
What is the one thing that can dissolve fibrin? Plasmin
What happens to platelets during fibrinolysis? the ones trapped in the fibrin web begin to contract
What happens to the torn vessel during fibrinolysis? the edges begin to pull together
Where does Plasmin come from? Plasminogen (inactive plasma protein) converts to the Plasmin
What does the liver synthesize most of? clotting factors
What is necessary for clotting factors? Vitamin K
What can interfere with clotting due to a lack of vitamin K? Gallstones
Body can only absorb vitamin K (from fatty foods) if what is present? Bile
Explain what would happen if you had no Bile: No Bile-No V. K-no Clotting Factors-No way to Stop Bleeding
How to keep from getting clots: smooth endothelium normal blood flow anticoagulants
how can keeping normal blood flow prevent clots? a small amount of THROMBIN (pre-clot enzyme) is usually circulating and diluted in normal blood but if you sit or lie down for a while, it can accumulate
How can smooth endothelium keep clots from forming? smooth blood vessel walls prevents platelets from wanting to stick
How do anticoagulants prevent clots from forming? Heparin blocks the action of thrombin (can be given as an injection) & Tissue Plasminogen Activator (T-PA) also dissolves clots
What are three blood clotting disorders? Thrombus Embolus Hemophilia
What is Thrombus? Unwanted blood clot in a vessel
What is an Embolus? Broken off thrombus that is now circulating through the blood
2 treatments for Embolus: Heparin shot or coumadin to block vitamin K in liver (less prothrombin from liver means less thrombin in blood)
deficiency of one of the clotting factors
How do you get a blood type? genetically determined
Name the Antigens: A&B (you can have both [AB] or neither [O]) + RH factor aka "D"
Where are Antigens? Surface of RBCs
What is the other name for Antigens: Agglutinogens
What is another name for Antibodies? Agglutinin
what two things will blood do during a cross/transfusion reaction? agglutinate and hemolyze
What kind of test is done to test compare donner and recipient blood? cross-match
RH positive blood contains what? RH Antigens
Does RH negative blood contain the RH negative Antigen? NO
Most blood is RH positive or RH negative? RH positive
Blood does/does not normally contain RH Antibodies? Does not
2 ways to develop anti RH antibodies: Rh negative person receives Rh positive blood during transfusion Rh negative mother has Rh positive baby with Rh positive father
What is the condition when a mother's blood type attacks her fetus's blood? Erythroblastosis fetalis (hemolytic anemia)
What shot do they give mothers to prevent Erythroblastosis fetalis? RoGAM
Created by: smhoffman



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