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Amino Acid Metabolis

dietary intake of protein for amino acid pool 70-100 grams per day
size of amino acid pool 30-40 grams per day
inhibitors of glutamate dehydrogenase ATP GTP NADH
CO2 + NH3 Carbamoyl phosphate
Carbamoyl phosphate + ornithine citrulline
Citrulline + aspartic acid argininosuccinic acid
argininosuccinic accid - fumaric acid arginine
arginine + H20 - Urea ornithine
AA's that go to Acetyl CoA Isoleucine leucine lysine phenylalanine tyrosine tryptophan
AA's that go to a-ketoglutarate glutamine arginine histidine proline glutamate
AA's that enter TCA at succinyl CoA isoleucine methionine valine
AA's that enter TCA at fumarate phenylalanine tyrosine
AA's that enter TCA at oxaloacetate asparagine aspartate
AA's that go to pyruvate alanine cysteine glycine serine threonine tryptophan
ketogenic amino acids leucine lysine
gluconeogenic amino acids alanine cysteine glycine serine threonine aspartate asparagine phenylalanine methionine valine glutamate proline histidine arginine glutamine
amino acids that are both keto & gluconeogenic isoleucine phenylalanine tyrosine tryptophan
Coenzyme A Organic carrier of -CH2COO-
Phosphoadenylic acid organic carrier of SO4(2-)
ADP organic carrier of PO3(2-)
NAD+ or NADP+ organic carrier of -H or electrons
THF organic carrier of: -CH3 -CH2OH -CHO
Biotin organic carrier of -COO-
Pyridoxal phosphate -NH2
serotonin amino acid precursor tryptophan
nicotinamide amino acid precursor tryptophan
histamine amino acid precursor histidine
taurine amino acid precursor cysteine
amino acid precursor of norepinephrine tyrosine
amino acid precursors of creatine arginine, glycine, methionine
amino acid precursors of epinephrine tyrosine
amino acid precursor of melanin tyrosine
amino acid precursor of indole 5,6 quinone tyrosine
amino acid precursor of thyroxine tyrosine
function of serotonin Peripheral vasoconstrictor Important in brain metabolism
function of nicotinamide Vitamin important in the structure of coenzymes NAD and NADP
function of histamine Causes capillary expansion and gastric secdretion. Released during allergic reactions
function of taurocholic acid One of the bile acids. Its polar and nonpolar parts make it a good emulsifier.
function of norepinephrine Less glycogenolytic than epinephrine and has little effect on the heart. It is a neurotransmitter in most sympathetic nerves.
function of epinephrine An adrenal hormone which acts to increase cardiac output, and causes glycogenolysis by increasing cyclic-AMP formation. Formed by methylation of norepinephrine using S-adenosylmethionine.
function of indole, 5/6 qunone An intermediate of melanin formation with an indole ring (normally found in tryptophan). The ring nitrogen comes from the a-amino group.
function of melanin The chief skin pigment. A polymer of the indole derivative of tyrosine.
function of thyroxine One of the thyroid hormones. An important stimulus for growth and overall metabolic rate.
function of creatine Travels through the bloodstream to muscle where it is converted to creatine phosphate, an energy reserve for resupplying ATP to tissues. Synthesized through reactions in the kidney and subsequently the liver.
Created by: amybemt