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Praxis II 0014 LA

Reading/Language Arts section of Praxis II test 0014

Four processes/stages essential to reader interpretations Initial (construction stage), developing (extending stage), reflection/response (extension of reading stage), critical analysis (examining stage)
Initial or constructing stage Stage of reading interpretation that uses prior knowledge
Developing/extending stage Stage of reading interpretation that uses text and background knowledge and uses new information to ask questions
Reflection/Response stage or extension of reading stage Stage of reading interpretation which uses text to reflect personally; reading impacts life
Critical Analysis/examining stage Stage of reading interpretation that reflects on content of literature; judges, relates or evaluates
allegory a narrative in which characters and events represent an idea or truth about life in general
essay used to express opinion
parable a simple, short story often used to explain a moral, belief or spiritual lesson
prose literary work that is in ordinary form and uses the familiar structure of spoken language
realism writing in which the reality of life is shown
tragedy there is a downfall of a hero due to tragic flaw or personal characteristics
narratives stories with a sequence including a beginning, middle and end in which characters are important
5 types of Point of View (POV) objective, third person, first person, omniscient and limited omniscient
Objective POV story is told through actions and dialogues; the reader must infer characters thoughts and feelings; the narrator is a detached observer
third person POV story is told through an outside voice (the narrator isn't a character) that informs the reader how characters feel
first person POV the narrator is a character in the story; biased because we only hear their POV and this may not be true
omniscient POV narrator is all knowing, knows all of the characters' thoughts and feelings
limited omniscient POV narrator's knowledge is limited to one character's (major or minor) thoughts and feelings
antagonist person or force that works against the hero (protagonist) in the story
protagonist the hero in a story
theme a view of life and how people conduct themselves; the reader must infer this in a narrative
tone the attitude or feeling a piece conveys
8 elements of plot exposition, inciting force, conflict, rising action, crisis, climax, falling action, resolution
exposition the intro to the story including the setting, tone, characters and initial understanding of the story
inciting force the character or event that incites or triggers the central conflict
types of conflict man v. man, man v. nature, man v. society, man v. self, man v. fate
rising action builds up from the conflict and ends with the climax
crisis when the conflict reaches the turning point; the most intense part of the story; can be before or during the climax
climax point at which the outcome can be predicted; the highest point in the story with the greatest emotion
falling action wraps up the story
resolution the closing of the story
Five major types of primary sources interviews, presentations, surveys, diaries/journals/letters, observation and participation
pattern of organization found within fiction story and plot, theme and meaning, conflict and climax, resolution and epiphany
patterns of organization found within poetry poetic devices, assonance, rhythm, alliteration, metaphor, simile, verses, stanzas, diction
patterns of organization found within non-fiction description and details, main idea and supporting details, compare and contrast, chronological order, cause and effect, process
Three components to the acquisition of language letter knowledge, logographic foundation, alphabetic foundation
letter knowledge giving sounds for an individual letter and writing letters in response to their individual sounds
logographic foundation reading familiar and common words (sight words)
alphabetic foundation reading aloud and having the student write the letter spoken based upon the sound spoken or the letter name uttered
Four areas at the core of reading instruction 1) understanding of psychology and development; 2) understanding of language structure; 3) application of best practices in all aspects of instruction; 4) using reliable, efficient, and validated assessments
print concepts letters have sounds and they form words
phonemic awareness speech is broken into individual sounds; in the English language there are 44
how to obtain print concepts structure of a book; learning through repeated reading and expose of text/print
how to obtain phonemic awareness exposure to nursery rhymes or common jingles; use of oral language and sound patterns
alphabetic principle letters represent sounds and speech
how to obtain alphabetic principle exposure to text and print
word identification various strategies are used to recognize vocabulary
how to obtain word identification decoding by sound; decoding by comparison to known words; sight words
fluency reading is done with expression, is automatic and flowing (does not require comprehension)
how to obtain fluency practice reading
comprehension critical thinking and processing of content read
6 categories of children's literature early childhood, tradition, fiction, biography and autobiography, nonfiction and reference, poetry and verse
strategies for word recognition instant recognition, context clues (semantic-meaning, syntactic-word order or symbolic-pictures), word structure clues, analogy clues
think and read a strategy for comprehension in which before reading the reader asks self what is already known, skims text, pauses throughout to take notes or write questions and reads difficult parts out loud. After reading the reader writes or tells about was learned
inferential reading comprehension strategy that draws about prior knowledge
story structure recognition comprehension strategy where recognition of patterns within literature aids the readers' comprehension
strategies for comprehension think and read, inferential reading, annotating text, KWL, metacognition, graphic organizers, QAR, summarizing, story structure recognition
orthography the study of the spelling systems of language. examines how letters are combined to represent sound and form words
morphology the study of the forms of words and examines how words develop
semantics the study of meaning within linguistics. It includes sense, reference, implication, logical form, word meaning, word relations, and structure of meaning. Readers use it to help fluency, comprehension and language acquisition
derivational affixation occurs when affixes are added to root or base words, which modify meaning and function. For example sing (verb) add -er to create singer (noun)
digraph a combination of two letters possessing a single sound "ch"
dipthong two vowels in which the sound begins at the first vowel and moves toward the sound of the second vowel. "ou" in shout
grapheme a letter or letters that represent one phoneme; the smallest meaningful unit within a writing system
homonym occurs when two words that have the same pronunciation and spelling but different meaning (left and left)
homophone 2 words that are spelled differently, pronounced identically but have different meanings (there, their)
homograph words with the same spelling but different meaning and may or may not be pronounced differently (wind and wind)
morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of speech that can no longer be divided ex. in, come, on
phoneme a distinct unit of sound found within a language that helps distinguish utterances from one another.
hyperbole an exaggeration or overstatement
idiom when words are used in a special way that is different than their literal meaning ex. steal ones thunder
stages of writing development scribbling, letter-like symbols, string of letters, beginning sound emergence, consonants represent words, initial, middle and final sounds, transitional phrases, standard spelling
stages of writing prewriting, rough draft, reread, revise, edit, final draft
stages of spelling development 1. precommunicative (scribbles) 2. semipohnic (single letters) 3. phonetic 4. transitional
Created by: allie424
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