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Anatomy Chptr 22

Lymphoid System /Immunity

What are the 3 components of the lymphoid system? 1.Lymph vessels aka lymphatics 2.lymph fluid 3. Lymph tissue: nodes and organs
Name the 4 lymph organs Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus, appendix
Name 3 functions of the lymph system 1.recovery of plasma that leaked out 2.homeostasis 3.immune function
Why are lymph vessels called blind ended? They are closed at one end
How do lymph vessels differ from veins? Lymphatics have thinner walls and more valves than veins
What kind of tissue is lymph tissue? reticular
Where are the lymph nodes clusters? axillary,cervical, pelvic
How is the lymph fluid cleaned? by phagocytosis by the monocytes
What are lacteals? lymph nodes in the intestines that transport fats into the blood
How are the left and right sides of the lyphatic system divided? Right side: right side of head, neck, rt thorax and rt arm Left: everything else
How does Right side drain back to the blood? All Rt lymphatic vessels drain into Rt. Lymphatic Duct and then empties into Rt Subclavian Vein
How does Left side of lymphatic system drain back to the blood? legs and abdomen drain into the cisterna chyli,then into thoracic duct, then into left subclavian vein.
What is the difference between specific and non-specific immunity? non specific immunity reacts the same against any type of agent. Specfic immunity involves makng a specific antibody against a specific antigen.
What are examples of non-specific immunity? physical barriers like skin, secretions like tears saliva, stomach acid, phagocytes, inflammation, fever
What are 4 components of an inflammatory reaction? pain (dolor), redness(rubor), swelling (tumor), heat(calor)
What are the 3 features of the specific immune system? specificity, memory, recogition
What are the 2 types of vaccines? and how are they different? 1.inactivated: dead proteins 2.attenuated: whole virus but weakened by heating
What is the difference between a primary and secondary immune response? Primary:first time exposed to an antigen, takes time to respond and produce antibodies. Secondary: efficient and immediate response, will make more antibodies than first time.
What is an auto immune disease? Immune systems attacks own cells
Name 2 autoimmunue diseases and what tissues they affect. 1)Rheumatoid arthritis affects joints 2)Lupus erythromatosis: attacks RBC proteins
What is the structure of an immunglobin ? 4 polypeptide chains, 2 heavy and 2 light forming a "Y"
What are the 5 types of Immunoglobins? IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
Which antibody type is made during the primary immune response? IgM
Which antibody type is made in the secondary immune responce? IgG
Which antibody type can pass the placenta? IgG
Which antibody type is found in secretions? IgA
Which antibody type is involved in allergic reactions? IgE
Which antibody type interacts with B cells? IgD
What is an allergen? Anything that causes an allergic reaction
What is anaphylaxic shock? shock and possible death resulting from severe allergic reaction
What is the mechanism of an allergic reaction? IgE is made in response to an allergen IgE binds to basophils -> mast cells Mast cells degranulate releasing histimine
What is the effect of histamine in allergies causes blood vessels to dilate and constricts breathing passages
What is a wheal and flare reaction? hives
What are the 2 types of specific immune responces? Humoral and cell-mediated
What is humoral immunity? antibody-mediated immunity. B lymphocytes respond to specific antigens in body fluids. Help T lymph activate B cell into a Plasma cell and produces antibodies
What is cell-mediated immunity? T lymphocytes defend against abnormal cells (like cancer or transplants) and pathogens inside cells (like viruses)
What are T-suppressor cells? inhibit antibody production
What are T-helper cells? Help B cell turn into a plasma cell
What are T-killer cells? aka cytotoxic T cells produce a toxin to destroy target cell
What are T memory cells? remembers what foreign antigens its been exposed to before
Name 4 kinds of T cells helper, killer, memory, suppressor
What is the difference between natural and artificial immunity? Natural: you make antibodies on your own or get passively as in newborns. Artificial: you induce immunity by injecting serum or vaccine
What is the difference between genetic and acquired immunity? Genetic (aka innate):naturally immune at birth ppl don't get goldfish diseases Acquired: not present at birth, develops after exposure to an antigen
Created by: karenanda



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