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Cells Chapter 3


A structure that assembles ribosomes Nucleolus
A structure that assembles amino acids into proteins Ribosomes
A set of membranes involved in packaging proteins for export Golgi apparatus
A small sac like structure used to transport substances within the cell Vesicle
A membranous organelle that generates ATP Mitochondrion
A small sac like structure that degrades wast products Lysosomes
The site of DNA storage Nucleus
The process by which RNA is synthesized from the DNA Transcription
A building block of DNA and RNA Nucleotide
An important component of ribosomes rRNA
The structure that carries amino acids to the ribosomes tRNA
The nucleic acid that carries information from the nucleus to the ribosomes mRNA
The process by which amino acids are assembled into a protein Translation
The process by which one cell divides into two identical daughter cells Mitosis
The nuclear membrane reforms during this phase Telophase
Centrioles begin to form and chromosomes condense during this phase Prophase
The phase of mitosis when chromosomes are aligned in the middle to the cell Metaphase
DNA synthesis occurs during this phase Interphase
The chromosomes are being pulled apart in this phase Anaphase
The process that utilizes a carrier to move materials across the plasma membrane against the concentration gradient using ATP Active transport
The use of hydro static force to move fluids through a membrane Filtration
The process that utilizes a carrier to move materials across the plasma membrane in the direction of the concentration gradient Facilitated diffusion
A special form of diffusion that applies only to water Osmosis
The spread of molecules thought an area from high to low concentration. Diffusion
The process by which a cell takes in large particles Endocytosis
The process by which materials are expelled from the cell using vesicles Exocytosis
Small fluid droplets are brought into the cell using this method Pinocytosis
What are 6 risk factors for cancer? Heredity, Chemicals, Ionizing radiation, Physical irritation, Diet, and Viruses
Phag/o to eat or ingest
Pin/o to drink
-some body
lys/o loosening, dissolving, separating
cyt/o cell
hyper- above, over, excessive
hem/o blood
iso- same, equal
hypo- deficient, below, beneath
end/o in, within
Hypo-tonic A low concentration of dissolved substances in water and therefore a high concentration of water in the extra cellular fluid. H2O will flow into the cell.
Isotonic Has the same amount of solute inside and outside of the cell .
Hyper-tonic A high concentration of dissolved substances in water and therefore a low concentration of water in the extra cellular fluid. H2O will flow out of the cell.
Meiosis Occurs in sex cells = Egg and Sperm, sex cells need to have 1/2 the number of chromosomes, 23
Mitosis Occurs in the somatic cells and other body cells. Somatic cells have 46 chromosomes
IPMAT Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Interphase The prep phase, DNA is replicated. G1 phase, G2 phase, G3 phase
Prophase Duplicated chromosomes condense, nuclear envelope dissolves, and centrioles divide and move to opposite ends of the cell, spindle fibers form
Metaphase Phase where Chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell
Anaphase Phases where the chromosomes begin to separate
Telophase Last phase of mitosis, chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell, two new nuclear envelope form, and the chromosomes uncoil. Opposite of Prophase
Plasma Membrane Encloses cell contents, Bi-layer structure with phospholipids, Cholesterol (strengthens the membrane), and proteins float within the lipid bi-layer, selectively permeable
Passive Transport No energy is involved in moving a substance across the cell membrane, with the consternation gradient
Active Transport The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy
Created by: zifkokat003
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