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Chapter 13 Gilstrap

european state consolidation in 17th and 18th centuries

QuestionAnswer
How did formal republic Netherlands exercise their authority? Through cooperation with provinces.
What was Dutch life marked by? Religious toleration and economic prosperity that came from country's overseas commercial empires.
Why was the Dutch capital system important? It financed economic life throughout Europe (kept the Dutch on the map).
How did Louis XIV govern France? made nobility dependent on patronage-allowed Parlement of Paris to oversee his royal decrees-regional parlements administered taxation.
What was religious England going through? the protestant movement of Puritanism opposed the Stuarts and sought to limit their powers.
What was religious France going trhough? Louis XIV crushed Protestant movement with help from Roman Catholics to make religious unity.
What type of government did England have? Parliamentary government.
What did the parliamentary government of England involve? nobility and landowners trying to limit power of monarch from interfering on a local level.
How was political France different from England? France chose to support the monarch and England chose to oppose it.
How did France political life play out? nobility supported the sun king and benefitted from his patronage.
Where did James I rule? Scotland and England.
What did James I advocate? Divine right of rulers.
Why was James unpopular with his English subjects? He decided to maintain an Anglican Episcopacy
Who left England, why, and where did they go? The Puritan seperatists left due to the anglican episcoapcy and founded the Plymouth colony in North America.
Why was Charles I unpopular with his English subjects? He forced more taxes on the people, as well as stationing troops inside private homes who were to go to war with Spain
How did Parlement respond to Charles I's plans? They made him agree to the Petition of Right which said that he would ask Parlement's permission before levying taxes or quartering soldiers in private homes.
What did Parlement issue in 1641 to Charles? Grand Remonstrance, which was a summary of grievances.
What happened when Charles invaded Parlement with his soldiers? Parlement raised their own army.
What brought about the civil war in England? Charles I invaded Parlement who then retaliated with their own army.
Who was Oliver Cromwell? Oliver Cromwell led the parliamentary army during the civil war, they were known as the New Model Army
Who won the English civil war? parliament led by Oliver Cromwell
What was the result of the outcome of the english civil war England became a Puritan republic dictated by Cromwell(aka. Lord Protector)
What was Charles II's rule known as? the Stuart Restoration because it brought back the idea of an Anglican Church and the monarch had little responsibility to call Parliament
How did Charles II renew fears of a Catholic England? he appointed Cathlics to high court positions as well as in the army
Who were the new monarchs after James fled to France? William and Mary of Orange. The accession was bloodless.
What was the bloodless accession of William and Mary called? the Glorius Revolution
What limited the powers of the monarcy, prohibited Roman Catholics from takin the throne, and guarantted the role of Parliament in government? Bill of Rights!!!
Give the list of Stuart English rulers in order, starting with James I. James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, Charles II, James II, Walpole
What was Poland's central legislative body known as? Sejm which means diet
What was significant about Polan's political system? They lacked a strong central authority
What was the liberum veto? meant that the opposition of any member could request the body to disband, which kept anyone from making progress
Why was unification of Habsburg lands so difficult? Different kinds of rulers (dukes, kings) and languages, and cutsoms
Charles I becomes Charles VI of the Habsburg Empire, who does he replace? Joseph I
Who was Charles VI of Habsburg lands only choice for an heir and why did he not want her? Maria Theresa, she was very weak and he feared the fate of the country after his death
What was the Pragmatic Sanction? Legal basis for a single line of inheritance within Habsburg dynasty through Charles VI's daughter, Maria Theresa
Who succeeded Charles VI as ruler of Habsburg territory? His "weak" daughter Maria theresa
Who was Frederick William known as? What area did he rule? He was known as the Great Elector and pulled together the areas of Hohenzollern territory
How did Frederick William build up his army? He collected money by military force from the people of Germany and used them to build up his army. He could now enforce his will without interference from the nobility.
How did Frederick William win the obediance of the nobles? He said if they were noble to him, he would let them have control over the serfs
What were the nobles of Prussia, Frederick William called? the Junkers
What did Frederick William's army do for Prussia? It gave unity to the absence of state unity
Who succeeded Frederick William? Frederick I
What was unique about Frederick I, Frederick William's son? He was not at all militaristic, instead he supported the arts
Who succeeded Frederick I? Frederick William I
What did Frederick Wiliam I do for Prussia? He brought back the military. He organized bureaucracy along military lines-army got huge which was a symbol of power and unity for Prussia
Who was considered the most successful Prussian leader? Frederick William I
Who succeeded Frederick William I? Frederick II
What was significant about Frederick II? He upset the Pragmatic Sanction by invading Silesia
What was Ivan IV known as? Ivan the Terrible
What followed Ivan's death? Time of troubles
Who was elected after Ivan the Terrible died? Michael Romanov
Give a list of Prussian rulers in order starting with Frederick William Frederick William, Frederick I, Frederick William I, Frederick II
Aleksei and Theodore II, sons of Michael Romanov, did what for Russia when they came to power? Brought back stability and modest bureaucratic centralization to people after reign of Ivan the Terrible
Who led the Russian bureaucracy? Nobles, boyars
How did Peter the Great come to power of Russia? on shoulders of the streltsy, they expected reward for this
What was Peter the Great convinced of? that the power of the tsar is secured by jealousy of boyars and greed of streltsy, and that military power must be increased
What interested Peter the Great that he brought back to Moscow? Military Resources and the navy in Western Europe, he brought these ideas back because he knew to expand Russia, warfare would be necessary
Peter the Great introduced conscription so that... the Russian army would be large
Why did Peter the Great make changes that challenged the boyars and their traditional views? Eastern Europe's image was that they were too traditional and looked funny with their long sleeves and beards-Peter wanted to be seen as a threat, not a laughing stock
Where was St. Petersburg founded? Gulf of Finland-Baltic Coast
What was the purpose of the Table of Ranks? In Russia, it was supposed to draw nobility into state service.it tied social postition with your rank in the military or government, which made people support the state instead of just themselves
Who extended the most religious freedoms in Europe? Ottoman Empire
How were Ottoman domains goverend? Sultans used millets to govern empire which officially recognized religious communities
What were non-muslins called in the Ottoman Empire and what was their life like? Dhimmis, were second class citizens but were allowed to have their own religious communities and could practice their religion freely-couldn't serve in military, couldn't wear certain colors, and paid a poll tax called jizyah
Why did the Ottoman Empire have trouble with commercial skills? Interaction between millets was discouraged and the non-muslin millets had commercial skills, but no one learned from them because no one talked with them
In the Ottoman Empire, what were and what was the purpose of the Janessaries? They were Christian boys recruited and trained as Muslims, only they could move up in military or government, they would support the sultan because they owed their social prosperity to him
Who were the Ulama and how did they cause the fall of the Ottoman Empire? They were religious scholars of the O.E and they would advise the Sultans on things-they urged teh sultan to conform to traditional life instead of modernizing like the rest of Europe and the O.E. fell behind in technology and the like
Created by: organiccheesenip